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PMblished monthly by the 

New York State Education Department 

BULLETIN 338 APRIL 1905 

New York State Museum 

JOHN M. CLARKE Director 



Bulletin 87 
ARCHEOLOGY 10 



PERCH LAKE MOUNDS 



WITH NOTES ON OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS, AND SOME ACCOUNTS 
OF INDIAN TRAILS 



WILLIAM M. BEAUCHAMP S.T.D. 



List of authorities 3 

Perch lake mounds. ......... . . . . 5 

Other New York mounds 24 

Trails 33 



Addenda 48 

Explanations of plates 53 

Index 77 



ALBANY 

NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 
1905 



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New York State Education Department 

New York State Museum 

JOHN M. CLARKE Director 

Bulletin 87 
ARCHEOLOGY 10 

PERCH LAKE MOUNDS 



WITH NOTES ON OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS, AND SOME ACCOUNTS OP 

INDIAN TRAILS 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 

Abbreviations at the left are used in the bulletin in exact reference to works in the following list. 

Amidon Amidon, R. W. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Beauchamp Beauchamp, W. M. The Aborigines. Jefferson County 

Hist. Soc. Trans. Watertown 1887. 
Benedict Benedict, A. L. Mound Builder Remains on Cattaraugus 

Creek, Erie county, N. Y. American Antiquarian. 

Chicago 1901. 
Boyle Boyle, David. Annual Archaeological Reports, 1901 and 

1903. Toronto. 
Cammerhoff Cammerhoff, Frederick. Diary of the Journey of Bro. 

Cammerhoff and David Zeisberger to the Five Nations 

from May 3-14 to August 6-17. 

Manuscript. 

Cecil Cecil, Harry B. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Clark Clark, John S. Notes in various papers. 

Emerson Emerson, Edgar E. Our Country and its People. Boston 

1898. 

French French, J. H. Gazetteer of New York. Syracuse 1860. 

Getman Getman, A. A. Letters to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Harris Harris, George H. Aboriginal Occupation of the Lower 

Genesee Valley. Rochester 1884. 

First issued in Semi-centennial History of Rochester^ ch. 1-15. Roches- 
ter 1884. 

Hough Hough, F. B. History of Jefferson County. Albany 1854. 

Jennings Jennings, C. P. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Jordan Jordan, J. W. Spangenberg's Notes of Travel to Onon- 

daga in 1745. Pa. Mag. Hist, and Biog. v. 2. Phil. 1878. 
Mackay Mackay, John. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Marvin Marvin, D. S. Mounds at Perch Lake, Jefferson County. 

Jefferson County Hist. Soc. Trans. Watertown 1887. 
Mattern Mattern, J. E. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Mayhew Mayhew, G. F. Bulletin of Natural History of New 

Brunswick. St Johns N. B. 1884. 
Morgan Morgan, L. H. League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee or 

Iroquois. Rochester 1851. 
O'Callaghan O'Callaghan, E. B. Documents Relative to the Colonial 

History of the State of New York. Alb. 1853-87. 
Putnam Putnam, F. W. nth Report of Peabody Museum; quoted 

by Cyrus Thomas in Report on the Mound Explorations 

of the Bureau of Ethnology. Wash. 1894. 
Relations Relations des Jesuites. Quebec 1858. 

Skinner Skinner, A. B. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Smith Smith, Harlan I. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Thomas Thomas, Cyrus. Report on the Mound Explorations of 

the Bureau of Ethnology. U. S. Ethnology, Bureau of. 

I2th An. Rep't. Wash. 1894. 

Twining Twining, J. S. Letter to Rey. Dr Beauchamp. 

Wallbridge Wallbridge, Thomas C. On some Ancient Mounds 

upon the Shores of the Bay of Quinte. Can. Jour, of 

Industry, Science and Art. Toronto 1860. 
Wilson Wilson, James Grant. Arent Van Curler and his Journal 

of 1634-35. Am. Hist. Ass'n. An. Rep't. 1895. Wash. 

1896. 

Woodworth Woodworth, Henry. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 
Zeisberger Zeisberger, David. David Zeisberger's and Henry Prey's 

Journey and Stay in Onondago from April 23d to 

November I2th, 1753. 

Manuscript. 



PERCH LAKE MOUNDS 

In all histories of Jefferson county, N. Y. there are slight notices 
of the curious mounds about Perch lake. When Squier wrote his 
account of the antiquities of New York they had not attracted atten- 
tion, for they were inconspicuous and remote from ordinary travel. 
Mr F. B. Hough seems to have been the first to mention them, a few 
years later, and he said there were several at the mouth of Lowell 
creek, Perch lake, about 30 feet across and with depressed centers. 
No creek is now known by this name to the oldest inhabitants, but 
he probably meant Hyde creek at the head of the lake, where there 
are yet a number. He added that there are some on Linnell's island. 
In these were found pottery, burnt stone and charred corn. Hough, 
p.io 

Linnell's island is not in the lake, but is an extensive elevation in 
the great swamp west of its foot and north of the outlet, as shown in 
plate i. It lies between two large streams and is now occupied by 
farms. Some mounds still remain on those owned by Messrs Gailey 
and Klock. No charred corn has been reported by any accurate 
investigator, and small coals may have been mistaken for this. Very 
little pottery has anywhere been found, but charcoal and burnt stone 
appear in all. In French's Gazetteer it is said that " in the vicinity of 
Perch Lake have been found several barrows, or sepulchral mounds." 
French, p. 360. It would not have been surprising if some of the 
larger ones had had a secondary use for burial, being well adapted 
for it in such a region, but no evidence of this has yet been found. 

Regarding these Mr J. S. Twining wrote me in 1886 of a more 
extensive distribution of these mounds than has been given by others. 
He said : 

We have extensive vestiges of a much older race than those who 
built the forts and made the pottery. They are scattered along Black 
river, some 6 miles from Copenhagen, and also on the hills back 
of Perch lake, some 10 miles from Watertown, on the farms of John 
Gailey and A. Klock. On the latter are the largest and most perfect. 
They are the remains of camp bottoms, with a depression in the 
middle, with a true circle of camp refuse and burnt stones around 
them from 2 to 5 feet high, and with a diameter of from 20 to 30 feet. 
I have never found a piece of pottery in any of them, but plenty of 
flint chips. Beauchamp, p. 113 



6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Mr D. S. Marvin made a day's exploration of the Perch lake 
mounds in August 1886 in company with Messrs Carter, Wood- 
worth and Woodard. The results he embodied in a paper read before 
the Jefferson County Historical Society, Mar. 15, 1887, adding 
a few facts from the earlier explorations of Henry Woodworth and 
J. S. Twining. The lake is a small one, part of the shores high and 
rocky, but much more low and marshy. The mounds occur only on 
the higher part. The outlet is 6 miles long, and mounds have been 
reported near this. At the natural bridge, near its mouth, are exten- 
sive camp sites with abundant bone articles and fragmentary pottery. 
The most important part of Mr Marvin's paper is quoted here as 
follows: 

The objects that arrest our attention and interest us the most are 
the so called Indian mounds, observed along both shores of the lake, 
and more or less down the outlet. They are situated upon the bluffs 
overlooking the water, and reach back from the lake sometimes a 
hundred rods; they number some two hundred in all. These so 
called mounds are all round, usually from 50 to 90 feet in circum- 
ference ; some of them double, and so near that their edges coalesce. 
They are elevated or raised above the summits of the hills they occupy 
from 2 to 4 feet. Where the land has not been cleared, ordinary 
forest trees of all ages are seen growing around and upon the 
mounds, ranging from yearling growths to trees several hundred 
years old. The debris usually observed about old Indian villages is 
found buried in the soil, old bones and broken pottery ; the organic 
remains though seem to have mainly rotted and gone to decay. The 
broken pottery observed was of the usual patterns, but it is only 
sparingly observed, for aronnd some of the mounds none could be 
found. A few of the small mounds were flat topped, but the usual 
shape and appearance is a ring of earth, with a depressed or basin- 
shaped center. 

In opening cross sections, or digging trenches from the outside to 
the center of the circles, as the centers are approached, remains of 
fires, charcoal, ashes, etc., were observed, sparingly though in the 
case of the largest mound. There was observed no disturbance of 
the soil below the level of the natural surface. The dirt of which 
the mounds had been constructed, is the common country soil, none 
of it seemingly brought from a distance, similar in character and com- 
position to the soil of the adjacent land, made up of clay, sand and 
small fragments of the underlying limestone, belonging to the Tren- 
ton group, as near as I could determine from a cursory examina- 
tion of the contained fossils, with here and there an occasional 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 7 

transported or drift pebble. The only observable difference was a 
darker color, caused by an increase of decayed organic matter and 
burned earth. No graves or human bones were observed. No lines 
of entrenchments were to be seen. Nor have there been any metal 
objects or utensils found. 

The explanation of the phenomena observed here, that has seem- 
ingly puzzled several generations of white men, seems to be plain 
and simple. There is no necessity for bringing farfetched theories 
to explain the observed facts. Whoever has been to California and 
noted the singular rings of earth, with their basin-shaped centers, 
that are known to be the remains of the old rancherias of the Dig- 
ger Indians, can readily see here in the close resemblances the original 
forms of Indian houses, belonging to the lower stages of barbarism, 
and probably a more or less universal style of house belonging to 
this stage of advancement, usually occupied only during the winter 
months, or generally deserted for nomad life during the warmer 
summer months. This style of house was constructed with a frame- 
work of poles set upon end and meeting at the top, and covered with 
dirt, leaving an uncovered space at the top to serve for the exit of 
smoke. 

The writer once visited one of these dirt houses in California, large 
enough to hold several hundred people, but perhaps not larger than 
the remains of one of those observed at Perch lake. Professor 
Thomas has described the remains of similarly constructed houses in 
Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. . . I have also observed near 
Burrville, within a strongly fortified enclosure, circles of toadstools 
that had grown up from organic matters, old bones, etc., buried in 
the soil, showing that similar round houses once existed within forti- 
fied enclosures, but unfortunately both ditches and circles are now 
leveled by the plow. Marvin, p.58 

I add some notes sent me in October 1901 by Mr Henry Wood- 
worth, one of the party mentioned, but whose conclusions are dif- 
ferent. Both these gentlemen are careful observers : 

I visited the mounds with Mr Marvin and Clarence Woodard, and 
we spent one day at the lower end of the lake, on the south side. We 
found a very large mound on a ridge in the woods. Some large 
maple trees were in it. Distance from the lake was 10 or 15 rods. 
We did the most of our digging in that one, but we dug in others 
that were hollowed on top, as most of them are. We found but little 
to pay us for our labor. The ashes and coal that would naturally 
accumulate were very light. For that reason I think they were occu- 
pied only for a short tiine in the summer, for fishing and hunting. If 
they had been used to winter in, the accumulation would have been 
much more. I and my son dug some in the mounds on the Gailey 



8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

farm at another time, but we found nothing to satisfy our curiosity. 
No shells were found in any of them by any one. We found no flint 
in any mounds. Mr Gailey said some had been found, and stone 
pipes, but who has them I do not know. He says but little was ever 
found. I found no bone articles. We found some animal bones, but 
they were so decomposed that they easily crumbled to pieces. About 
the outlet and lower end of the lake are a number of mounds on the 
Gailey farm, of different sizes. Some are flat on top, but most have 
a depression in the center. Mr Gailey said there are over 200 up 
the creek and around the lake. I think there are mounds below Mr 
Gailey's, but I never visited the upper end of the lake. 

He said there was no accumulation of burned stones in the mounds, 
probably meaning the small ones used in heating water. From this 
and the lack of pottery he concluded that no cooking, or but little, 
was done in them. Most of the many stones found show the action 
of fire, but they are usually of some size. 

In a letter dated Aug. 4, 1900, Dr Getman said: 

We were at Perch lake a few days ago, and examined the mounds 
that are found at each end of the lake. We were at the north end 
and along the banks of Hyde creek. They are situated near the bank 
of the lake, extending upwards on to a high bluff of sandstone, and 
gravel of the same, along the banks of Hyde creek. They are 25 to 
30 feet across, 3 to 5 feet high, with a central depression of 8 to 10 
feet in diameter. This depression is paved with the usual firestones. 
We saw one that was on a gravel bed, and had been partly removed. 
It was uniform in thickness, simply burned sandstone, gravel and 
black earth. The earth is different from the surrounding soil, being 
burned. We saw no pottery, bone, or anything that would give us a 
clue to the builders. Hough says broken pottery and bones are 
found there. This I think a mistake. Some have been dug to the 
center, and we were informed they had found flint and stone imple- 
ments. There was only one that showed evidence of large timber 
growing from the site. We counted 15 in a piece of woods, and the 
trees (maple) were mostly small that were growing on the banks. 

In a recent history of Jefferson county the mounds at the north 
end of the lake are again mentioned, but with little additional in- 
formation save that of partial location. The editor says that at the 
lake 8 or 10 mounds are on the lands of George W. Sherman and 
Alonzo Van DeWalker 10 or 15 rods from the shore. They are cir- 
cular, 2 or 3 feet high, 2 to 4 rods in diameter, and with the central 
holes 2 feet deep. The largest is said to be on the Sherman farm, 
near the ruins of the old La Farge mansion. Emerson, 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 9 

There are two large groups north of any of these, and but one 
mound was observed by me over 40 feet in diameter. The fine pair 
in front of the old mansion are by no means of the largest size, either 
in hight or width. 

Before adding notes of personal observations to these, it may be 
well to take notice of some kindred groups on the north shore of 
Lake Ontario, which I had planned to examine some years since. 
Mr Thomas C. Wallbridge read a paper " On some Ancient Mounds 
upon the Shores of the Bay of Quinte," Mar. 3, 1860, which was 
printed in the Canadian Journal for September of that year. These 
mounds had then been locally known as artificial for 50 years, but no 
account had been previously published. Commencing at Redners- 
ville they could be traced along the bay about 8 miles to Massassaga 
point. This space, with the islands of Big bay, included about 100 
distinct mounds, but others could be seen at intervals from the 
eastern to the western end of the Bay of Quinte. Others were 
reported at one place on the River Trent. Mr Wallbridge said : 

As far as has yet been ascertained, there is but one class or form 
of mounds in this part of the country, and the truncated cone is the 
shape they assume. In size they vary from a diameter at the base of 
30 to 50 feet, to a diameter at the apex of 12 feet. Each mound has 
a shallow basin or circular depression upon its summit, which, what- 
ever be the size of the work, has a diameter of 8 feet ; and no mound 
under my observation possessed an altitude of more than 5 feet. It 
is a remarkable peculiarity of these works, that in almost every 
instance they occur in groups of two, and at irregular distances the 
one group from the other. Irregularity is likewise observable 
between any one mound and its fellow, these being sometimes found 
in juxtaposition, and again from 50 to 100 feet asunder. The two 
of the same group are always of one size. With respect to the sur- 
rounding country they are situate apparently without design, now 
at the foot of a commanding hill, then halfway down the side of a 
bank, and again so near the shore that in several instances they have 
been destroyed by the action of the water. Twice they have been 
found in very low or swampy ground, and in those cases they occur 
singly. Wallbridge, p.m 

He opened five of these at Massassaga point in August 1859. A 
cut was made 33 feet long, 2 feet wide and 3 feet deep, to the original 
surface. Under a few inches of mold was a heap of broken gneiss, 



IO NKW Y'iKK SI.V1K MTSKUM 

conforming to the outer shape of the mound. The stones varied 
from i to 20 pounds each, but those forming the bottom of the 
basin were the smallest of all. Some showed the action of fire, 
but there were no traces of this in the mound. In making a cross- 
section some fragments of birch bark and bone were found above 
the stones. He said: 

The other mounds examined agreed in all particulars of con- 
struction with that above described, excepting in one pair where it 
was evident from what remained that the inside margin of the basin 
of each mound had been surrounded with flat stones placed vertically 
and touching at their edges, as if designed to prevent the earth 
falling into the hollow. Similar stones, perhaps used for the same 
purpose, were observed lying near most of the other mounds in this 
vicinity. 

He thought these had been displaced by diggers, and added : 

In several instances the builders have been forced, from the nature 
of the surrounding country, to carry their material from a distance, 
but to obtain the usual covering of mold for the pair of mounds 
last mentioned they have bared the smooth underlying rock of its 
scanty soil, in a well defined circle alx>ut the works. The use of 
broken gneiss for a building material, to the almost entire exclusion 
of limestone, is a noticeable feature. 

Limestone was most easily procured, but I think its change by 
fire may have made it objectionable. Large trees grew on some 
mounds, one oak stump being 8 feet around. 

So far the likeness to the Perch lake mounds is that of external 
form, size and situation, with a tendency to pairs. The interior 
differs in the character and arrangement of the stones, and the 
absence of coals. Similar ones were examined later, but one was 
of a sepulchral nature. This was excavated from the center to the 
natural surface. Some of the diagrams made are here partially 
reproduced. 

Plate 10, figure 3, shows a section of the mound in which skele- 
tons were found, with general features of the construction of all. 
In this appear the interior stones, the overlying soil and the central 
depression. Figure 2 shows the position of some articles found, and 
the central chamber. Ground was broken at 10, and a little below 
the surface was a flat, horizontal limestone, with fragments of human 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS II 

bones and birch bark, and a bone awl 8 inches long. These were 
probably from intrusive burial. 

Another flat stone was found 2 feet from the surface, with three 
human skulls underneath, in a rude box of flat limestones. Many 
of the remaining bones were found, and five well preserved 
crania were secured. One skeleton at 6 was in a sitting position, 
with a pile of articles by it. Among these was the upper part of a 
bone comb, several teeth of the same, a unilateral bone harpoon, 
and three long shell beads. These articles do not indicate a high 
antiquity, and are much like those of New York. The burial was 
clearly intrusive. 

A sketch of this interesting group has been given because it is 
little known, and partly because, being not far distant and in a very 
similar situation, it may have some relation to those of Perch lake. 
The latter seem to have gradually increased in hight; according to 
Mr Wallbridge the former would seem to have been of nearly the 
same size from the beginning. This hardly seems probable, nor is 
it likely no fire was used in them, judging from what is found else- 
where. I saw no ashes in those of Perch lake, and in some cases 
the coals were so blended with the soil as to be hardly distinguishable. 

In the spring of 1901 I visited Perch lake, where the old La Farge 
mansion once stood, at a considerable distance north of a large 
stream which enters the lake on the east side. Quite a point extends 
into the lake near this, back of which is a rocky bank, and thence 
the land rises eastward in low and broad terraces. On the green- 
sward of one of these, not far from the bank, two of these mounds 
are conspicuous, one being a little above the other, and the edges 
meeting. At this spot they are the only ones in sight, and both 
have the characteristic circular form and depressed center. A little 
digging has been dtme in each, but this has affected the appearance 
very little. Though a little shaded they are practically in open 
ground. They are not of the largest size. The upper and eastern 
one has an extreme breadth of 34 feet, and an inside diameter of 
14 feet from the interior slope. This is about 2 feet deep, within 
and without. The western one is of the same outside hight, and is 
32 feet across the base. The inside width is 17 feet, and the depth 



12 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

3 feet. Some digging has been done in the center. The disturbed 
earth is black, containing burnt stones, but there are no signs of 
organic or artificial remains. Not far away there are many spots 
where the flat rocks form the natural surface, and about these thi 
spring saxifrage was abundantly in bloom. The low, symmetric 
mounds themselves formed a pleasing feature of the scene, full in 
view from the modern ruins as the land descended toward the lake. 
The spot is so convenient and beautiful that one might Have expected 
to find more there, but for the evident tendency to place them in 
pairs or small groups. 

It was late in the morning, and no satisfactory photographs could 
be obtained from lack of shadows. At a subsequent visit many 
mounds were examined in the rain, and others in the depths of 
woods and undergrowth. Many sketches were made, some of which 
are here given, but in no place could the camera be used to any 
great advantage. 

A second visit was made in the middle of September 1901. A 
map of the vicinity had been secured, on a scale of a mile to the 
inch, and the general grouping will appear on this, shown on plate i. 
As there was no special plan in the location of these structures, no 
necessity is felt for more exact details. They were placed where per- 
sonal or family taste or convenience required. No rule appears in 
this except ease of access to the lake or streams. Some were on 
quite elevated land; others on broad hummocks, surrounded by 
marshy spots but little above the lake. In a few cases they were 
on the high banks above rocky streams, at some distance from the 
shore. The unpropitious weather prevented a personal examination 
of those at the south end. 

As far as I could ascertain there are none now remaining on the 
west side of Hyde creek and northwest side of Perch lake. The lake 
may once have been higher than now and thus larger, but this did 
not affect the situation of the mounds, nor their probable age. 
Beginning on the west side of Hyde creek a long line of cliffs runs 
parallel with the present shore toward the southwest, and between 
these and the lake is a broad expanse of swampy land, well covered 
with trees. No one could have lived in this swamp, nor was access 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 13 

to the shore through it in the least easy. I examined the undis- 
turbed land at the top of these cliffs for a long distance, without 
finding a trace of aboriginal life. Every favorable indication was 
carefully examined, but nothing appeared. There may have been 
obliterated dwellings in the cultivated land farther back, but this is 
not probable. The swamp was an undesirable barrier to the lake. 

Farther north, on the west side of Hyde creek, the case was 
different. That stream came fairly near the rocky uplands, afford- 
ing an easy passage to the lake. Accordingly a few mounds were 
reported there, though none seem to remain. Certainly they were 
few. I was told of two mounds leveled by my informant on the 
A. J. Dillenbeck farm in 1901. These were 5 rods west of the 
swamp and 30 rods from the lake. In plowing there he found a 
broken flint knife, a fragment of pottery and a pottery rim, all of 
which he gave me. From the character of the rim I think there is 
an error of location. These were all the mounds of which I could 
learn on that side. 

Mr S. Getman said that he found a celt near two mounds he plowed 
up on the south part of his farm, at an early day, on the higher ter- 
race east of the creek. I found no existing mounds as far north as 
this. A celt and arrowheads were reported from two mounds 
destroyed in 1900, on the upper terrace of the Timmerman farm. 
These had disappeared. The dual arrangement may be observed in 
all these mounds. It is probable that many mounds have long dis- 
appeared from this higher cultivated land. Those remaining are on 
the stony lower terraces. Commencing south of the Getman farm 
they extend along the shore to a stream called Ruff's creek by some. 
Smith of this swampy lands again appear by the lake. This eastern 
shore is mostly high and rocky, rising thence in terraces, and the 
mounds appear here and there all the way. Some mounds may have 
escaped my attention in the undergrowth on the Van de Walker 
farms. 

A medium sized mound was opened on the farm next south 
of S. Getman's. Plate 4 shows this, on the second terrace east of 
Hyde creek and not far from it. It is 30 feet across and 2 feet high, 
with a broad central depression. A rectangular fireplace in the 



14 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

center was 8 feet across and edged with upright flat stones. This 
went down 2 feet below the present surface, the earth having been 
removed for the fireplace, and cast back as a foundation for the ring. 
Plate 12, figure 2, shows the surface plan. A is the outer slope, B 
the top of the ridge, C the inside slope, D the fireplace edged with 
stones, which is not an invariable feature. There were many coals 
in the black earth, no ashes and no vestige of anything else. There 
were many large stones. A trench was carried through to the 
original surface, and shorter cross-sections were made. A little 
southeast was another of similar size, rather flat and not prominent. 

Another, farther south, is near the north line of the Timmerman 
farm. This is about 36 feet across and 2 feet high. It is flatter than 
most on top, but shows the usual depression. Small trees are grow- 
ing on it, and there are some large stones along the edge. They may 
have been dug out of it, for most mounds have a few such stones. 
Plate 5 shows this. 

A mound on the Timmerman farm has a large hemlock stump on 
it, and some small trees. It is a continuation of a low ridge, so that 
its exact dimensions are modified by this. As measured it is 28 feet 
wide by 2 feet high. The hemlock stump might show how old it 
must be, but not how old it might be. In these descriptions the gen- 
eral course is from north to south. A low ring, 19 feet across and 
on the same farm, tends to show that growth in hight and width was 
slow, and by removals of matter from center to circumference; pos- 
sibly by additions without. The depression is 8 feet across, but it 
was not noticed whether there was an inclosed fireplace. Plate 6 is 
of this. Another, west of the fence and this, is broad and low. 
Still another small one is on the lower terrace, not far away. Both 
these are northwest of the next. 

A high mound on the edge of the upper terrace, and just west of 
the fence which crosses it, was not measured across, but is 3 feet high 
and with a deep central depression. A large stump is on the south 
side of this. Part of its effect is lost from its surroundings. There 
is an obscure one on the lower terrace a little west. Another low one 
with a wide and deep depression is on the same farm, and is 
shown in plate 7. It is about 21 feet wide, the hight being usually 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 15 

in proportion to the width, and is an excellent example in its 
symmetry. 

On the same farm is another 27 feet wide and 2 feet high, having 
a deep depression. A small one is just west of this, and perhaps 
related. 

Another is 30 feet wide and 2 feet high, having a depression. 
There are some large stones outside of this. As the mound rose and 
the ring grew, it may have taken in loose boulders around, which 
had no relation to it. There is an obscure one north of this, and near 
a shanty in the woods. One on the south side of the shanty was 2 
feet high. 

A gravel bed, which has been opened in the woods, was cut 
through one of these mounds, in such a way as to give a good 
exposure. The bed reached above the mound on the east or upper 
side, the mound terminating a ridge, and nothing is seen in the 
exposure there. Another cut has been made in the mound below. 
At the base is coarse gravel, in its natural condition. Over this is a 
stratum of black earth, 3 feet deep and about 27 feet wide. The top 
and the extremities of the mound remain. Nothing was found in 
obtaining the gravel, nor was anything discovered in our farther 
digging. Not far from this, by the fence on the upper terrace, was 
another large one. 

The finest mound on the Timmerman farm is near its southwest 
corner, in an open field and near the head of Perch lake. It is 33 
feet wide and about 5 feet high. Plate 8 is of this. It is at the foot 
of a bold hillside, and itself on high ground. Digging had been done 
there, and the Rev. Mr Scott is said to have obtained pottery and 
other things in 1901. We dug but little, and found'nothing. Other 
low mounds were near toward the lake, and there is a. large flat one 
quite a distance north. South of this group is low land for some 
distance, crossed by a rapid stream. 

Leaving this stream and the low land the woods on the Sayles 
farm are reached, where there are many evergreens and a rocky shore 
along the lake. In these dark woods are other mounds. One is near 
the north end, and has its east side more elevated than the other, 
apparently from the slope of the land. This has quite a deep 



1 6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

depression, and is of the usual size. A low and broad one is north of 
this, and two smaller ones south. Another large one is farther 
southwest. The depression is deep. 

South of these woods is lower land and a brook, both north of the 
large point. A fine mound is on a low bluff in this bay. There are 
several mounds not far off. One is on the low bank near the shore ; 
another south of this on a knoll or slightly higher land. Another, 
beyond the last and on the lake side of a knoll, has a very deep and 
large depression, 13 feet across. There is another at the south end 
of this ridge, and another in the low land east. Two are on the 
lower bank farther south, and there is a confluent group at the 
north base of the high terrace on which the La Farge mansion stood. 
The situation of these in these low lands is singular, though some of 
them are dry enough, and the spot is unusually sheltered. 

South of the brook, as the large point is turned, there appear deep 
depressions and slight rings of an undecided character, and then 
come the two fine mounds in front of the ruined La Farge mansion, 
already described. Plate 9 shows the upper and larger one. South 
of this is low land, through which a large stream enters the lake. 
Beyond this creek no mounds appear for nearly half a mile, though 
some have probably been destroyed. Then one with a deep and 
broad depression appeared on a high bluff in the edge of the woods. 
It was about 27 feet across. High rocks here fringed the lake, with 
terraces above, on which was much undergrowth. 

Nearly a quarter of a mile beyond was a doubtful one, not having 
a complete circle, and a similar one was on the edge of a knoll 
beyond. It is difficult to estimate distances while looking for mounds 
in thick woods, and it may be another quarter of a mile to a large 
and fine one on the second terrace. This was 27 feet wide, 2 feet 
high, and has a depression of 3 feet in the center. As before 
observed, it was usual to dig out the center in beginning these 
mounds. Not far away are two large ones, close together on the 
high bluff above the lake. Another just beyond is 36 feet wide, and 
the depression is 16 feet across. Another obscure one is farther 
south near the high bank of the lake. Between this and the cottages 
and boathouses beyond, is one 36 feet wide, 3 feet deep inside, and 
2 feet outside. This is fine. 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 17 

A stream enters the lake at the boathouses. South of this and east 
of the shore is a large and high mound in which digging has been 
done. In the freshly turned earth no vestiges of early occupation 
could be seen except black earth and burnt stone. This mound is 
about 5 feet high and 40 feet across. Common pottery was found 
in small camps by the shore. Beyond this is another low mound. 
Probably some in these woods were not observed. 

After leaving the woodland the swamp is soon reached, and some 
mounds may have been obliterated in the open fields. North of the 
swamp flows a small rocky stream through these fields. On the brow 
of the upper terrace, on the north side of this is the largest and 
deepest mound I saw, measuring 45 feet across. Another is close 
beside this on the east, and another on higher ground still, in the rear 
of these and toward the road. On the south side of the stream, 
farther down and overlooking the water from a high bank, is 
another small but deep one under a tree. It is a pretty situation. 

A large mound is near a shanty in the sugar camp, toward Ruff's 
creek. This is 40 feet across and 3 feet high. A good deal of dig- 
ging has been done there, but seemingly without results. A smaller 
one is near the shanty. This ended the explorations on that side of 
the lake. The oldest inhabitant knew of nothing taken from mounds 
south of the La Farge mansion. In all 54 mounds were observed, 
and 6 obliterated ones reported, or 60 in all. Other unobserved or 
obliterated mounds might much increase this number, but it is not 
likely to reach the higher estimates made for the whole territory. 

At the north end of the lake is one spot deserving of a few words, 
and yet probably not connected with the general subject. In the edge 
of the swamp at the northeast angle of the lake, is an immense mass 
of rock which can be reached by a boat. In some of the depressions 
of this rock are many small flint chips, showing that it was a favorite 
spot for arrow makers. What weapons the makers of these mounds 
used is uncertain, but it is probable that the visitors to Squaw island, 
as some call it, were of another people. The spot commands a view 
of nearly the entire lake. 

Dr A. A. Getman and Oren Pomeroy, of Chaumont, kindly made a 
close examination of the group I could not visit and with much the 



1 8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

same results. Both are experienced and careful observers, and for 
this reason I give Dr Getman's account written Nov. 6, 1901. 
He wrote: 

We went to Linnell island today. It is a limestone terrace, sur- 
rounded by lowland and swamp. . . Mr Gailey says the island 
contains about 500 acres, with three farms at present. The soil is 
clay and a gravelly loam, with abundant outcroppings of rock (Chazy 
limestone). From the map you see the mounds dot the crest of the 
terrace all around the island ; some at least $4 of a mile apart. Some 
of them appear to be built on the rock. In fact we dug the center of 
one down to see that it was started on the solid rock. We dug on 
this one near the barn. It had no central depression. We dug the 
center to the bottom ; pit 4 feet square ; then commenced at the edge 
on the south, and opened to this pit. There are less stones and more 
soil than at the head of the lake, but we found lots of large hard 
heads, 8 to 12 inches across, about halfway from the edge to the 
center. All were burned. The depth was 2 to 4 feet from circum- 
ference to center. There were streaks of very dark earth and char- 
coal. Some of the charcoal was small limbs, 2 to 4 inches long, by 
i inch through. Three of the mounds have been removed for road 
building. They appear to make excellent roads. (These are marked 
A, A on the map, plate 2.) We saw some recent plowing which 
exposed three more. They were near those removed. 

We looked over the three that had been used for roads. They had 
been only partially removed. The manner of working had been to 
plow the soil loose and shovel on the wagons ; three men to beam the 
plow. In the plowed field some were smoothly plowed; on others 
the plow ran out. We found in the one near the house of J. 
Gailey, marked S, a skull and teeth of a muskrat. badly decayed, 
and a piece of broken stone that looked as if used for a nut stone. 
That is absolutely everything, except burned stones of all 
descriptions, charcoal and dirt; unless a few pieces of reddish 
crumbly pieces of stones were paint stones. S also shows some 
excavated mounds. 

We looked over the plowed field, pawed over debris of the road 
mounds, and looked over the road that the stones were used on a 
private road to the Klock farm. 

How many mounds there are I have no idea. We counted about 
20, but there have been and are many more. I think, as a general 
thing, that they are smaller than those at the head of the lake, and 
of less depth. Mr Clarence Gailey claimed to have found two 
arrows when working the road business, but could not produce the 
find. It is very perplexing that no authentic relics can be found and 
handled. Pomeroy says the mounds are similar to the one we saw 
on Fox island ; that is the contents, stone, soil, etc. 



I'KRCII I.AKK AM) OTIIKK XK\V YORK MOUNDS KJ 

Mr R. D. Lovelancl, of Watertown, found a few small fragments 
of pottery in the large mound near the boathouse, but did not pre- 
serve them, as he obtained larger pieces of the usual types near the 
shore, where these might be expected. Had none been found else- 
where those in the mound might be thought intrusive. A clay pipe 
was also found near the shore. 

In the Bulletin of Xatural History of Xcu 1 Brunswick for 1884, 
p. 14, Mr G. F. Mayhew gives his ideas of how such hut rings were 
gradually raised. I infer that these might have been well known 
there, but am not certain on this point. He supposed that in some 
circular lodges moderate cleanliness was preserved, not by removing 
refuse altogether, but by drawing it back and rilling in the center 
with fresh gravel. A constant repetition of this would preserve the 
circular form and the central depression as the mound rose above 
the surface. Bone needles found near the edge he thought had been 
stowed at the back of a couch. Pottery was much like that found 
elsewhere. Arrowheads were made by the fire, few flakes being seen 
out of doors. Most ordinary aboriginal implements were found. 

This general mode of elevation reasonably accounts for the form 
and growth of the Perch lake mounds. A pit was made in the 
center for the fire, and a large circle was thrown up at the edge of 
the lodge to carry off water. A slope from this to the fireplace gave 
an easy position to the reclining people within. It was necessary to 
remove or rake the embers away, and the edge gradually rose. To 
make it cleaner it was as easy to bring in a fresh supply of dirt as 
to carry accumulations away. In all this there was a natural over- 
flow which enlarged the borders of the mound. The original fire- 
place was all the time retained, and so the largest mounds are the 
deepest. 

Mr Harlan I. Smith suggests a likeness in these to some he recently 
examined on the Pacific coast, and I give plate 10, figure i, to illus- 
trate this point. In his explorations he found that up to a recent 
date the Thompson river Indians made huts of this kind. In this 
section a is an excavation in the ground, which increased the hight 
of the interior of the lodge, and supplied material for its covering. 
Around this excavation an arch b was raised, resting on the surface 



2O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

c. This arch had a frame of saplings and branches underneath, 
covered with dirt and sods. In the center of this strong frame above 
an opening, d, was left. This was reached by a primitive ladder, e, 
made of a notched pole which gave strength to the roof. This was 
the only means of ingress or egress for light, smoke and Indians. 
He found one still standing in a dilapidated condition, but observed 
the remains of many. When the roof fell in, a low mound was 
formed, with a marked central depression. These would probably 
differ from the Perch lake mounds in the size of this depression, the 
hight of the circle, and the evidences of fire throughout. The latter 
were probably simple tepees, pitched from time to time on the same 
spot, but not continuously occupied. The accumulation was gradual, 
but earth might have covered the lower part of the wall. 

In his report on Mound Explorations, Prof. Cyrus Thomas 
described some mounds of this class closely connected with larger 
mounds in the Welch group, Brown county, Illinois. The group 
" consists of six mounds, and a number of small saucer-shaped basins 
surrounded by low, earthen ridges, doubtless the sites of ancient 
dwellings or wigwams." Thomas, p.u8. He adds that " the dwell- 
ing sites vary considerably in size, some being as much as 70 feet 
in diameter, and some of them 3 feet deep in the center after 50 
years of cultivation." In describing those on the Big Mary river, 
111., he adds something on their situation and origin : 

These are situated upon a flat topped ridge, about 30 feet higher 
than the creek bottoms. They are low, with the usual depression in 
the center, but the outlines are rather indistinct. Mr Gault of Sparta, 
who has long resided here, states that when he first moved to this 
section, the Indians lived in houses or wigwams which, when de- 
cayed, left such remains as these. They hollowed out a shallow cir- 
cular cavity in the surface soil, then, standing poles around the 
margin of this basin, brought them together at the top, and having 
covered them with bark or other material in other words having 
constructed wigwams of the usual circular form covered them in 
whole or in part, specially the lower portion with earth. He also 
said that after a camp was abandoned and the wood rotted away, it 
left these rings of earth. Thomas, p. 141 

In one inclosure near Lakeville, Stoddard county. Missouri, he 
says, 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 21 

Nearly the whole space between the walls is occupied by the hut 
rings or circular depressions. They are of the usual size, 20 to 50 
feet across, and i to 3 feet deep. Thomas, p. 174 

These contained ashes, pottery, etc., and he mentions no ridges. 
In another group the rings varied from 21 to 34 feet across. In an- 
other large group we get a more definite idea of the elevation, a fea- 
ture in which most of these seem to differ from those of Perch lake. 
This is at Beckwith's fort, Mississippi county, Missouri. After 
describing the inclosure he says of the hut rings : 

These almost cover the remainder of the area, the only open space 
of any considerable size being the 200 feet square just east of the 
large mound. They are not confined to the natural level of the in- 
closure, as some are found on the level tops of the mounds. They are 
circular in form, varying from 30 to 50 feet in diameter, measuring 
to the tops of their rims, which are raised slightly above the natural 
level. The depth of the depression at the center is from 2 to 3 feet. 
Near the center, somewhat covered with earth, are usually found the 
baked earth, charcoal, and ashes of ancient fires, and around these 
and beneath the rims split bones and fresh-water shells. Often 
mingled with this refuse material are rude stone implements and 
fragments of pottery. The similarity in the size, form, and general 
appearance of these depressions and earthen rings to those of the 
earth lodges of the abandoned Mandan towns along the Missouri 
river, leaves no doubt that they mark the dwelling sites of the people 
who formerly occupied this locality. Thomas, p.i87 

These mere depressions illustrate but one feature of the Perch 
lake mounds, and we have a closer correspondence in those described 
by Prof. F. W. Putnam in the nth report of the Peabody Museum, 
and quoted by Mr Thomas. They were some observed by the 
former in Tennessee, and thus described : 

Scattered irregularly within the inclosure [the earthen wall which 
inclosed the area] are nearly one hundred more or less defined 
circular ridges of earth, which are from a few inches to a little over 
3 feet in hight, and of diameters varying from 10 to 50 feet. . . 
An examination of these numerous low mounds, or rather earth 
rings, as there could generally be traced a central depression, soon 
convinced me that I had before me the remains of the dwellings of 
the people who had erected the large mound, made the earthen 
embankment, buried their dead in the stone graves, and lived in this 
fortified town. Thomas, p.662 



22 NKW YORK STATK Ml'SKI'M 

Professor Thomas adds that these hut rings " arc seldom, if ever, 
met with except on the site of an ancient village, and often one that 
was defended In an indosure." This again ditTerentiates the 
western ami southern forms from those of N'ew York. The latter 
are scattered or in very small groups, have the depre^ed center 
very little below the natural surface, are usually of considerable 
bight, show the action of fire, but rarely contain ashes or relics of 
any kind, have no bones or shells, and the earth of which they are 
composed has been gradually gathered from year to year. \Yith 
all this difference there is an unmistakable likeness, and no hesitation 
is felt in calling them the foundations of early lodges. 

Two things naturally arrest attention. There are no Ixmes or 
shells revealing the food of the inhabitants, though the condition- 
are favorable for their preservation. Most of them contain n> 
articles made by man. The favorite fresh-water dam of the Xeu 
York Indians was U n i o complanatus. It is so widely dis- 
tributed that it probably occurs in Perch lake, though 1 observed 
none along the shores. If it is not found there that part of tin- 
problem is solved. IHit these aborigines were there for the fish of 
the lake, as well as for the game in the woods. Their homes had 
an easy access to the water. Why are no bones of any kind found 
under these conditions? The Iroquois sites yield them abundantly. 
It may be due to an Algonquin superstition. All will agree that 
these were not Iroquois homes, for they rarely used the circular 
lodge, which the Algonquins commonly preferred. There were 
differing tastes and beliefs of other kinds. The Iroquois left bones 
of every description on the ground. The Algonquin scrupulously 
gathered up many kinds, and either threw them in the water, or 
burned them in the fire. 

A single quotation from the Relation of 1634 will illustrate this. 
The missionary said : 

The savages do not throw the bones of the beaver to the dogs, 
or of female porcupines, at least certain special bones ; in short they 
very carefully take pains that the dogs shall eat no bone of birds 
or other animals which are taken in a snare. Otherwise they will 
take no more except with the greatest difficulty ; besides there are 
within a thousand observations, for it is important only that the 



PERCH LAKK AND OTHER Xli\V YORK MOl.'NDS 23 

vertebrae or the rump alone should be given to these clogs, the rest 
must be thrown into the fire; still, for a beaver taken in a snare it 
is better to throw his bones into a river; it is a strange thing that 
they gather and pick up these things, and preserve them with so 
much care that you would say their hunt had been lost had they 
gone contrary to their superstitions. As I ridiculed them and told 
them that the beavers did not know what was done with their bones, 
they replied to me: You do not know how to take beavers, and 
you wish to talk about them ; before the beaver is entirely dead, 
they said to me. his soul comes around by the cabin of the one who 
killed him, and notices carefully what they do with his bones ; that 
if one gave them to the dogs the other beavers would be warned 
of it ; that is why they would render themselves hard to catch : but 
they are very glad if they throw their bones into the fire or into a 
river, the snare especially, which has taken them, is well pleased. 
I told them that the Iroquois. as is done among us, threw the bones 
of the beaver to the dogs, and yet they very often took some, and 
that our French, beyond comparison, were accustomed to take more 
game than they, and yet our dogs were accustomed to eat the bones. 

The Algonquins, of that day. extended this rule to fish, and it may 
have had wider applications still. To leave no permanent memorial 
it was necessary only to care for the bones on the lodge site. Out- 
side of the circle they would soon perish, and this superstition pre- 
vented their casting them there. These lodges had no dumping 
places ; everything was disposed of on the spot. 

In referring these mounds to the Algonquin family another fact 
is explained. These nations may not have been without earthen- 
ware, and perhaps most of them were not, in a limited way, but it 
was not so common as with the Iroquois and others. They were 
nomadic, and the lightest vessel possible suited them best. It was 
particularly necessary to have one not easily broken, and that could 
be readily replaced on a journey. Toward and north of the St 
Lawrence the canoe birch abounded, and of this material their cook- 
ing vessels were formed. Their cooking was not very thorough, 
and hot stones, dropped into the water, heated, it enough for their 
needs. 

Why arrowheads are not found, nor other stone implements as 
a rule, is a more difficult question, but capable of various answers. 
There were careful aborigines, those who lost little, as well as those 
careless and wasteful. Articles were not so readilv lost, but more 



24 NK\V YORK STATE MUSEUM 

readily found, in a cabin than in a village. The wooden arrow 
might have sufficed for most of the needs of the place. Some have 
suggested that the huts were those of a recent day, and that no 
purely Indian relics may be expected. I do not assent to this view, 
nor am I prepared to say with Mr Marvin, that these forest men 
have left us traces of the oldest habitations in the State. The fact 
seems to be, however, that we must make these very modern, with 
but little to sustain this view, or place them before the Iroquois 
occupancy of New York and the St Lawrence. Till the Iroquois 
sold their lands there has been no time within the last 300 years 
when it would have been safe for Algonquins to have habitations 
on Perch lake. For a century before that, at least, Jefferson county 
was occupied by the Iroquoian family, and they had no wish for 
intruders. How much these mounds antedate the last four centuries 
is a harder problem. I think they may safely be placed within the 
past 500 years. Traditionally the Algonquin and Iroquois family 
arrived here nearly together, and at no remote period. An exam- 
ination of the sites of their camps and towns seems to substantiate 
this, and these mounds suggest a period antedating that of their 
inveterate hostility. They were undefended, long used, and yet 
were in a territory claimed and held by the Iroquois for hundreds of 
years. 

Two maps of the vicinity are given ; one from a large county map, 
and the other from the public topographic purvey, conspicuously 
differing in some respects. In the latter, plate 3, the lake is much 
shorter than in the former, and streams which enter the river 
in one flow into the lake in the other. The difference may be 
accounted for by the fact that part of the swampy shores w r ere once 
included in the lake, when the water supply was greater. On the 
former map the general range of the mounds is indicated by the 
usual sign. 

OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 

A few supplementary remarks may be made on other mounds in 
New York, the larger part of the State having none, and most of 
those found being of small size and simple character. In some 
cases natural formations have been mistaken for these, having been 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 25 

used for burial or camps. In 27 counties some form of mound 
has been reported and a summary of these follows. They are most 
frequent west of the center of the State, and will be mentioned by 
counties. 

Several occurred in Allegany county, and thence westward they 
were frequent. In the town of Conewango, Cattaraugus county, 
was a tumulus 13 feet high, with a diameter of 61 by 65 feet. 
Skeletons were found with relics. In the village of Randolph was 
a burial mound 10 feet high and 35 feet in diameter. In the town 
of Bucktooth, north side of the Allegheny, was a burial mound, 39 
feet in diameter and 10 feet high. Another was in the town of 
Napoli, on Cold Spring creek, which was 120 feet around. At 
Olean were several of these, one being 40 by 60 feet in diameter 
and nearly 10 feet high. One in Dayton was of the same hight, 
and 120 feet in circumference. Another was on the west side of 
the Allegheny river, in the town of Cold Spring. This has been 
reported as 200 feet around and 20 feet high ; probably an exaggera- 
tion. On Cold Spring creek, 2 miles from the Allegheny, were two 
burial mounds, 10 feet high and 100 feet around. Others were in 
the towns of Leon and Conewango, in one of which were 8 sitting 
skeletons. 

Quite a number were in Chautauqua county. One at Cassadaga 
lake was 7 feet high and 30 feet in diameter. A stone mound near 
a fort in Ellington was 4 feet wide and 5 feet high. Two mounds 
near Griffith's point, Chautauqua lake, were once 12 feet high and 
40 feet in diameter. A number of similar mounds have been 
reported on both shores, and two near Jamestown. Another, near 
Rutledge, was 20 feet in diameter and 6 feet high. One in the 
village of Fredonia was 7 feet high. Another at Fluvanna seems 
recent. Most mounds west of Cayuga lake were sepulchral. 

Near Spring Lake, in Cayuga county, were small mounds with 
human remains, but these may have been incidental, as in some 
other places. On the high land of Rowland island, near the river, 
are one or two suggestive of Perch lake. One is not very distinct, 
but the other stands out plainly. It is a circle with a diameter of 
37 feet and an elevation of 30 inches, inclosing burnt earth and 



26 NK\\ YORK MAN-: .\irsi-:r.M 

stone, but yielding- no relics. The earth is in its natural condition 
for a considerable distance around. Some pits within the circle 
may be the work of explorers. This I examined July iS. 1902. 

The noted burial mound in Greene. ( henango county, was 40 
feet in diameter and 6 feet high. Several hut rings have been 
reported along the Chenango river, similar to those at Perch lake, 
but those at Indian brook, a little south of Greene, prove to be 
caches. 

i oluinliiu and Schoharie counties both had the stone heaps to 
which Indians added stones in passing. 

Krie county had its full share of mounds. One at the mouth of 
C attaraugus creek was used for burial, but was probably natural. 
It was 50 feet across and from 10 to 15 feet high. The relics were 
modern. 

There were several burial mounds on the east side of Cattaraugus 
creek, two of which were excavated by Dr A. L. Benedict of Buffalo, 
in 1900. As good accounts of such work by competent observers 
are rare in New York, his plans are given in plate 1 1 , and his report 
is summarized from the American Antiquarian for upi. p.Qo^-ioj. 

Xo. i. a truncated mound in an open field when I saw it, is a mile 
north of the creek, and 600 feet north of the high bank of the ancient 
valley. It is nearly circular and about 70 feet in diameter. The 
central bight is 4 feet, 8 inches, but he thought it was originally 
10 or ii feet high. It was made of sand loam, and there were 
depressions north and south in the general level of the field. It 
had been disturbed. At A were animal bones, ashes and charcoal 
at 3 feet. 5 inches from the surface ; also bones of the aboriginal 
dog. At B was a heap of flat pieces of Hamilton slates, some of 
them waterworn. A rib and sacrum under these he thought those 
of the musk ox. At C was a fragmentary human skull, with other 
human bones, at a depth of 3 feet. Near this were flint arrows and 
knife, flint chips occurring elsewhere in the mound. Dr Benedict's 
plans have the top to the south. 

Xo. 2 resembles the last and has been reduced by plowing. It is 
quite near the creek, and a central shaft was sunk below the original 
soil in 1875 1\ v William C. Bryant of Buffalo. Gravel was found 



PERCH I.AKI-: AM) OTIIKK NEW YORK MOUNDS 2/ 

4 feet below the level at A by Dr Benedict, and this occurred at 
4 feet. 9 inches at H. At F was an oblong 1 fireplace of water worn 
stones. Between the top stone and one on the west side of the 
inclosure part of a pottery rim was found. There were small 
sherds at H. In the ashes under the top stone were calcined bones. 
A human astragalus was found at B, 4 feet southwest of the central 
stake, at a depth of i foot, 9 inches, covered with several round 
stones, 6 inches to a foot in diameter and an inch thick. A 
calcined long bone was found 15 feet south of the stake, which 
seemed part of a human tibia. At 7 feet, 10 inches south from the 
stake the bottom of the mound was of burnt clay and gravel, about 

6 inches thick. Below this was a hollow space, beginning 3 feet, 

7 inches from the surface of the mound. This was 9 or 10 inches 
deep, and extended every way 2 or 3 feet. The floor of this was 
of coarse gravel, about the size of hickory nuts, blackened, but 
showing no disturbance. Charred wood was occasionally found, 
some of considerable size. There were also small bits of mica. 
These seem hardly true burial mounds, though containing human 
bones. 

Other mounds have been reported in Erie county 15 to 16 feet 
high and from 45 to 54 feet in diameter. One near the Indian fort 
at Buffalo was 5 or 6 feet high, and from 35 to 40 feet across. It is 
probable that Dr Benedict's diameters may be too great, allowance 
not being made for increase at the base by washing down from 
above. 

On St Regis island, Franklin county, was a mound 8 feet high, 
and another opposite, on the east bank of St Regis river. Burial 
mounds were frequent along the St Lawrence. 

Small mounds have been reported on Tonawanda creek, in 
Genesee county, but they may not have been artificial, though used 
for sepulture. The mound at the Bone fort, near Caryville, wa& 
6 feet high and 30 feet wide, almost entirely composed of bones. 

Two small mounds have been reported nn Jefferson county, and 
many hut rings on the east bank of Black river, Lewis county, 
opposite the Deer River station. These are like those at Perch lake. 

In the summer of 1903 an early and notable ossuary was discov- 



28 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ered by Mrs R. D. Loveland of Watertown, near the long carrying 
place at the head of Chaumont bay. A curious depression arrested 
her attention, and a little digging brought to light a human skull. 
She then turned over the search to others, who unfortunately had 
not her knowledge and skill, and no clear description is available 
from them. Dr R. W. Amidon afterward visited the place, saw 
the relics, and obtained what information he could. Its importance 
comes from its age, the relics being mostly of early types. The pit 
is near and below the end of a ledge of Trenton limestone. At 
least 8 skeletons of vigorous adults were unearthed, from 2 to 4 
feet below the surface, and mostly covered with boulders and flat 
stones. Two skulls were fractured, as though by a war club. A 
perfect clay vessel was destroyed by the diggers, but it was of a 
frequent form. A bird amulet, of green striped slate, was found. 
This was 5^2 inches long, rather broad, and with the head and tail 
almost on a plane with the body. There was also a bar amulet of 
sandstone, 6 inches long, and a perfect soapstone pipe of a frequent 
form. A flat bone bead, bone and horn implements, flint arrow- 
heads or knives, were among other articles. This ossuary thus 
gives us some idea of what other things were used by those who 
had these amulets. 

In Livingston county there was once a mound in the road from 
Dansville to Groveland, which was 4 or 5 feet high and 30 feet in 
diameter. Another was midway between Dansville and Scottsburg. 
A burial mound was 2.y 2 miles southeast of the head of Hemlock 
lake. One at Mt Morris was used for recent sepulture, but 
may not have been artificial, as it is said to have been 100 feet 
across and 8 to 10 feet high. Some accounts make the relics of 
early types, and it is probable it was used at various periods. On 
the Genesee river, near the Wheatland line, was a burial mound 
8 feet high. Two mounds are also on the Wadsworth farm near 
Geneseo. One is 3 feet high, but not quite 25 feet across ; the other 
is much smaller. Both have been reduced in size. A stone heap 
at Lima traditionally had a memorial character. 

In Madison county, on Oneida lake, are supposed Indian mounds, 
which are probably natural formations. 



PERCH LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 29 

There was a mound in Monroe county, a few miles northwest 
of Scottsville. Two small mounds were west of Irondequoit bay, 
on high land, the largest being less than 5 feet high. A large one 
was east of the bay, and another, east of the village of Penfield, was 
originally 40 feet in diameter and 8 or 9 feet high. Two burial 
mounds were on the east bank of Genesee river, half a mile below 
the lower fall. They were 4 feet high and 20 to 25 feet wide. 
There were other mounds in that vicinity. In Pittsford was a pile 
of large limestone boulders, the heap being about 12 feet square. 
Between Irondequoit landing and the lake was a cemetery of 200 
small grave mounds, arranged in rows. The further character was 
not reported, but single graves are usually depressed. A mound 
was on the bluff south of Dunbar hollow, which contained stone 
implements. Mr Harris thought a small island on the west side of 
Irondequoit bay was mostly artificial, as proved by excavations and 
grading. It was 90 feet long, 32 wide and 17 feet high, but was 
not sepulchral, though it contained many fine articles at a depth 
of 15 feet. 

A mound described in Cambria, Niagara county, should be called 
an ossuary and contained metallic articles. A stone mound has 
been reported a mile west of Lockport, and an ordinary one at Gas- 
port. Two burial mounds of large size were on Tonawanda island. 
Another was in Wilson, and two in the town of Lewiston. In Sep- 
tember 1903, the one marked D on Schoolcraft's map was opened. 
He called it " a small mound or barrow," but if it ever had much 
elevation cultivation had long before removed all signs of this. As 
it has not before been described a brief account of it will be given 
here. The first skull was found 6 or 8 inches below the present 
level of the ground, and the skeletons were estimated at over 300. 
Over 200 skulls were secured and none had been injured, the place 
representing well the ossuaries of Canada. The date may have been 
not far from 1620, perhaps a little later, while the Neutral nation 
still occupied land in New York. The pit, excavated by Mr John 
Mackay of Niagara Falls, was about 18 feet long and from 12 to 
14 feet wide, with a depth of $ l / 2 feet from the surface. The form 
was an irregular ellipse, and the bottom was of rock and clay. To- 



3O NKW YORK ST.VIi: MI.-KrM 

make more room the pit had 1x.ru widened alxwt 18 inches from the 
lx>ttom. and the smaller Ixmes were placed in this addition. Then- 
were no traces of any lining to the pit. nor any suggestions of 
Jesuit contact, while earlier articles of Kuropean trade had reached 
the spot, possibly from the Dutch through the Five Nations. There 
were 24 iron axes, several brass kettles. 3 sword blades. 24 large 
and curious brass rings. 5 cylindric brass or cop]>er beads, with other 
ornaments of shell. Through the kindness of Mr Mackay I exam- 
ined a number of these. The rings are simply short brass cylinders, 
bent in circles, and the beads are long brass tubes, precisely like 
those occurring in the Mohawk valley. One of these is u inches 
long and yk inch in diameter. Mr Mackay has an interesting collec- 
tion, well repaying study. 

Some burial mounds have been reported in Xew York city, 
apparently natural elevations used for sepulture. 

Some supposed mounds in Oneida county are also of doubtful 
character, nothing having been determined by examination. 

In Onondaga county, near Baldwinsville. were two large stoiu- 
heaps, covering human bones, and two burial mounds were on the 
west side of Onondaga outlet. One was circular and stood out 
prominently from the bank behind it. The other was oblong, being 
12 feet long and 3 feet high when I sketched it. and had then been 
somewhat reduced. 

At the modern Seneca castle near Geneva, where Johnson built 
a fort in 1756, is an artificial mound about 6 feet high and used as 
a cemetery. It is probably rather graded than built up. There was 
a small recent mound at Clifton Springs. 

In Carlton, Orleans county, on the north bank of Oak Orchard 
creek, is a small oblong mound. 20 by 30 feet in diameter. Another 
small mound was 30 rods away. 

Bone hill, at Oswego Falls, was a place of sepulture, now known 
to be of natural formation. It was 6 rods in diameter and 40 feet 
high, and has been removed. 

In Unadilla was a supposed Indian monument, 20 feet in diameter, 
10 feet high, and of a conical form. There was a mound at 
Oneonta. and a supposed burial mound at G*>perstown. 



1'KKC 11 LAKE AND OTHER NEW YORK MOUNDS 31 

In Tioga county there was a circular burial mound at Owego. 
Several mounds were in the vicinity of Newark Valley. One of 
these was 15 feet high and 250 feet around, suggesting natural 
formation. 

In Wayne county I examined several mounds July 18, 1902. One 
was northwest of Savannah and in the midst of camp sites. It is 
circular and but slightly separated from the ridge behind. It is 60 
feet across and 3 feet high. Another burial mound north of Crusoe 
creek and northeast of this, is now small and low, but distinct. 
Another was examined 2^2 miles south of Savannah. It is at the 
south end of a ridge containing caches, from which it has been 
separated by excavation. The bodies were apparently laid on the 
surface and the earth heaped upon them. It is 30 feet across and 
about 7 feet high. The first of these mounds shows little work. 

In Wyoming county is a burial mound about 4 miles south of 
Portage. 

In Yates county a small burial mound on Bluff point is 9 feet 
long and 4 feet high. 

These are all the burial or monumental mounds thus far reported 
in New York, as distinguished from defensive earthworks. Very 
few indeed resemble those of Perch lake, and this led to the special 
examination of the latter. Their peculiar character is emphasized 
by this comparison with New York mounds elsewhere, and though 
scattered examples may yet be found here, it is quite probable that 
nowhere else in the State will they be seen in such numbers or in 
such fine preservation. They form a unique group, well worthy of 
further study, though offering little in the way of fine relics, or 
indeed of any at all. 

By way of caution it should be remarked that the hight of mounds 
is commonly made too great unless accurately determined ; and there 
is also a disposition to consider any symmetric elevation of moderate 
size an Indian mound. Even when human bones are found in them 
they are not always artificial. 

A curious spot i l /2 miles west-southwest of Unadilla may be 
described here, having never been mentioned before. For the 
account and chart, thanks are due to Mr Harry B. Cecil of that 



32 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

place. It is on the farm of Enoch H. Copley and in a woodland 
of about 33 acres, the whole of which is a series of moraines and 
kettle-shaped hollows. In the largest of these hollows is a shallow 
pond, marked A in the diagram, plate 12, figure I. The shaded 
part B has been partly filled in for the Delaware & Hudson Rail- 
road. The pond is surrounded by moraines, C C C, about 100 feet 
high, and a road D, follows the north and east margins. At E, F, G, 
are rude stone walls from 2 to 4 feet high. Mr Cecil said : 

At one time I supposed these had been constructed to get rid 
of the rocks that were in the way, but this could not be the case, 
as the stones could have been dumped into the pond very much 
more easily, and it would have materially helped to widen the road 
D. The oldest residents say that these piles and walls have ah 
been there. At II, until a short time ago, were two circles made of 
rocks loosely thrown together. They measured 10 feet across and 
were contiguous, having openings at the remote parts of their cir- 
cumferences. I turned these over carefully, but failed to find 
anything of Indian workmanship and the soil beneath was appar- 
ently undisturbed. At I was another stone wall. At J is a heap 
of undisturbed rocks. At K is a carefully made road, about 8 feet 
wide and extending about 300 feet in a westerly direction, gradually 
ascending to 50 feet above the pond level. No explanation can be 
given of this unless it was part of a trail. Below this road and 
above the wall at E, is a stone heap, and above the road is a large 
hollow filled up with stones of all descriptions. I am positive that 
these heaps are not natural. All these remains are included in 
about half an acre. 

This account is free from extravagance and suggests the use of 
the spot as a pound for deer, terminating a driveway. These and 
other animals would naturally resort there to drink. With or with 
out contracting hedges they would follow their own paths, and the 
roadway would turn them toward the double walls, I, F. when driven. 
Some would escape only to encounter other hunters at the wall G. 
In the press others might turn back and meet hunters at the wall E. 
The circles may have been the foundations of hunting lodges, and 
the season of wild fowl would afford a secondary use. The usual 
course was to make a pound of stakes and branches, but the primi- 
tive hunter was quick to avail himself of natural advantages, and 
was not sparing of work. 



TRAILS 

In the League of the Iroquois, Mr Morgan gave a definite and 
interesting account of the principal Indian trails of New York, over- 
looking some things which seriously affected his scheme. Sites of 
Indian towns were constantly changing, and trails of necessity 
changed and were forgotten. An abandoned forest path is soon 
obliterated. All his towns were not properly located if the record 
is to be considered two centuries old. Much of the time Indians 
took a general rather than a fixed course in going from place to 
place, for the advantage of hunting or for other reasons. Thus 
trails were very faint in some places, becoming plainer as they 
approached towns. Remembering such things, Mr Morgan's gen- 
eral plan will serve as a proper basis for some remarks on Indian 
trails. At some period it may have been essentially correct, but in 
the nature of things this was but for a brief time. With this reser- 
vation it deserves high praise. 

His scheme makes the trail leave Albany along the old turnpike, 
going to a spring 6 miles west and thence to Schenectady, crossing 
the river at the ford, where a bridge was afterward built. This 
may be allowed, though it may not have been Van Curler's exact 
route in 1634. Yet it is doubtful whether there was any trail or 
much travel there before the Dutch came, for the Mahicans at 
Albany were at war with the Mohawks west of Schoharie creek, 
and made their footprints as light as possible. At Schenectady the 
trail probably divided, when there was one, following both banks 
of the Mohawk. When Van Curler followed that stream westward 
in 1634, all the Mohawk towns were west of Schoharie creek, and 
the Indians did not care to ford that for some reason. Curler 
crossed the river, followed the north bank till the creek was passed, 
and then recrossed to the. south bank, where all the towns were. 
When all these were on the north side, a few years later, there was 
no use for the southern trail. When the south bank was occupied 
it was used again. Mr Morgan's scheme places but one small 
village on the north. 

In 1634, and for some years later, all the Mohawk towns were 
between Schoharie creek and Spraker's. His scheme places 



34 XKW YORK MAM Ml SI. CM 

Te-hon-da-lo'-ga at the mouth of the creek, Canajoharie on the 
east bank of Ot-squa'-go creek at Fort Plain, and the upper Mohawk 
castle in Danul;e. llerkhr.er county. Thence his trail went to I'tica. 
\Vhitesboro, Oriskany and Rome. This was a very recent route. 

On the north he supposed that the trail turned off to John>town. 
a modern feature, returning to the river at Fonda, and going thence 
to Rome, This does not allow for the fact that as early as 1600 
one Mohawk town was far up Cayadutta creek, another still farther 
on the Garoga, and a third on the Ot-squa'-go. all several miles 
from the Mohawk. Rome was not an objective point till western 
trade became vigorous, and there was probably little travel that way 
till the i8th century. Van Curler, in going to Oneida in 1634. 
certainly left the Mohawk east of present Canajoharie, crossing the 
hills to the upper waters of Oneida creek. Later accounts show 
that this was long the only great trail, and this fact Morgan over- 
looked. This affected his scheme beyond the portage. Me said : 

From Rome the main trail, taking a southwest direction, passed 
through Verona, Te-o-na-tale', and finally came out at Oneida Castle. 
This was the principal village of the Oneidas. 

Knowing the latter was a recent town. Gen. John S. Clark placed 
Old Oneida in the southwest corner of Vernon, where Sauthier's 
map shows it. On his map of 1700 Colonel Romer marked his 
route as leaving the Mohawk at the third castle, thence southwesterly 
near the head of Schuyler lake, thence west to Old Oneida, whence 
a branch trail led to the portage. Being on horseback his party took 
the main road west to ( )nondaga. 

From the 'modern Oneida Castle. Morgan's trail went through 
Canastota, Canaseraga, Chittenango and the Deep Spring, Manlius 
and Jamesville, to Onondaga Valley. Xo colonial traveler mentions 
Deep Spring, though one of Gansevoort's officers spoke of it as 
"Sunken Spring in the road," in 1779. and the Onondagas tell me 
that their favorite resting place was at Green lake, near Kirkville 
and north of this route. Johnson and the Moravians alike show 
that the main trail in 1756 was a mile south of Jamesville, entering 
Onondaga valley far south of the turnpike. The Moravian journals 
show that there were several trails between Oneida and Onondaga. 
touching the Tuscarora towns. 



TRAILS 35 

Mr Morgan's three Onondaga villages are not well located, as 
is easily proved. Ka-na-ta-go'-wa, or great village, is now where 
he placed it, but it was 3 miles north of this in 1779, the farthest 
north of all. There was no village at Gis-twe-ah'-na. In this 
scheme the trail passed up the hill west of the present village of 
Onondaga Valley, northwest through the sites of Camillus and 
Elbridge, thence through Sennett and Auburn, crossing Owasco- 
creek just above the prison, following the old turnpike halfway to 
Cayuga lake, then going direct to the old Cayuga ferry, half a mile 
above Cayuga bridge. It crossed the foot of the lake about 4 miles 
farther north, at the old fording place near the lower bridge. This, 
however, was not the trail used by the Moravians and others 
in the middle of the i8th century. That went directly over the 
hills from Onondaga, at that time 4 miles south of the present 
canal, passed some miles south of Marcellus village, crossed the 
foot of Skaneateles lake and that of Owasco, reaching the village of 
Ganiatarage 1^2 miles north of Union Springs, intersecting there 
the trail which connected the Cayuga villages east of the lake. This 
was also Colonel Gansevoort's route in going eastward from the foot 
of Cayuga lake to Fort Stanwix in 1779. The principal Cayuga 
village was at Great Gully brook, 3 miles southeast of Union 
Springs. From the mouth of this stream the lake was usually 
crossed in canoes, and the trail went on to the foot of Seneca lake, 
passing through the Cayuga village of Nuquiage, not far from that 
lake. This is an historic route from Onondaga to the first Seneca 
castle. That given by Mr Morgan seems much later. 

In his scheme, after fording the foot of Cayuga lake, the trail 
followed the north bank of Seneca river to Seneca lake. He noted 
another trail, crossing the lake in canoes, and running west from 
the shore to Seneca Falls. Thence it followed the south bank of 
the river, intersecting the other trail at the lake, and running i l / 2 
miles north to the first Seneca castle, near Geneva. Thence it fol- 
lowed nearly the line of the turnpike to Canandaigua, at the foot of 
that lake. 

The Moravian journals make quite a difference here. From the 
foot of Seneca lake they went 4 miles west-southwest to a deserted 



36 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

town, where the trail divided, one path going to the head and the 
other to the foot of Canandaigua lake. There were others to 
various points. At last they found the right one, but a very bad 
road. This took them through old Onnachee in Hopewell, and 
Canandaigua lake was then called by this name. The outlet was 
crossed on a rude Indian bridge. Ganataqueh (Canandaigua) was 
a few miles beyond, on a hill. Thence they went to Hachniage 
(Honeoye) near the foot of Honeoye lake. Still going west they 
crossed Noehnta creek, the outlet of Hemlock lake, and came to 
Ohegechrage or Conesus lake. Ten miles farther they reached 
Zonesschio (Geneseo) on the Genesee river, but not the later site. 

This is essentially one of Morgan's two trails. One of these went 
southwest from Canandaigua to the foot of Honeoye lake, then in 
sight of Hemlock lake, passing the foot of Conesus lake, crossing 
the Genesee at the present Geneseo, and leading to Little Beard's 
town, at one time the largest Seneca village. This had no existence 
in 1750 on its later site, and Geneseo was then near the mouth of 
Canaseraga creek. 

The other trail, considered the main one by Morgan, went from 
Canandaigua through the villages of West Bloomfield and Lima, to 
Avon on the Genesee, crossing the river a few rods above the bridge, 
and following the bank to Ganowauges a mile above. This is satis- 
factory for quite recent times, but it leaves out the important early 
villages near Honeoye Falls and in Mendon, as well as the great 
fort and town near the village of Victor. The great trail certainly 
once included these. Guy Johnson's map of 1771 has two of these 
trails from Canandaigua, and a third one farther south. Pouchot's 
map of 1758 is of more interest than value, as he probably had not 
been over the road, but notes on these various charts may be 
reserved for an appropriate place. 

The remaining section of the main trail, as given by Morgan, 
lies west of the Genesee river, in a region where there were no 
Seneca villages in 1650. It led from the river to the great Caledonia 
spring, then through the village of Leroy, crossing Black creek 
near Stafford and striking Tonawanda creek a mile above Batavia. 
Passing through that place, it turned northwest through Caryville, 



TRAILS 37 

and led to the present Seneca village of Tonawanda. There it 
"branched. One path led northwest, through the creek and swamp, 
past Royalton and then to the Cold spring 2 miles northeast of 
Lockport. Continuing northwest it reached the ridge road and ter- 
minated at the Tuscarora village near Lewiston. This latter trail 
of course dates from the occupation of that reservation. 

The other branch went southwest from the Indian village to 
Akron and Clarence Hollow, thence to Williamsville and the head 
of Main street, Buffalo, where it ended. Mr Morgan said: 

This trail was traced through the overhanging forest for almost 
its entire length. In the trail itself there was nothing particularly 
remarkable. It was usually from 12 to 18 inches wide, and deeply 
worn in the ground ; varying in this respect from 3 to 6, and even 
12 inches, depending upon the firmness of the soil. The large trees 
on each side were frequently marked with the hatchet. Morgan, 
P429 

It remains to notice his lake and river trails. From Oswego one 
followed the lake ridge to Irondequoit bay, turning up the bay to 
its head, crossing the Genesee at the Rochester aqueduct, striking 
the ridge road at the lower falls and going west to the Tuscarora 
village, a recent town. 

A trail followed the Genesee river on each side, connecting the 
recent Seneca villages occupying the valley. These need not be 
mentioned here, and for many interesting details the reader is 
referred to Morgan's valuable work. 

Trails naturally converged at Tioga point, where the Chemung 
united with the Susquehanna, and these became important thorough- 
fares for the Iroquois in their later wars. From this point he 
named two trails up the Susquehanna. One followed the north 
bank, crossing the Chenango at Binghamton, thence to the Unadilla, 
and there intersecting the Oneida trail. The I/rail again branched 
at Charlotte river, one branch going to the Cherry Valley creek 
and then to Canajoharie. The other followed the Charlotte to 
its head, crossed to the Cobleskill, intersecting the Schoharie trail 
at Schoharie creek, ending at the lower Mohawk castle. A branch 
turned up Foxes creek, crossed the Helderbergs and ended at 



38 NEW YORK STATK MUSEUM 

Albany. This was the Indian Ladder road. Another crossed tin- 
town of Middleburg to the Catskill, following that stream to the 
Hudson. 

It is evident that these trails came from the recent occupation of 
Schoharie creek by the Mohawks, of the Susquehanna by the 
Oneidas and Tuscaroras, and of the Chemung by the Cayugas ; in 
part by all. In 1753 there was no road at all along the north bank 
of the Susquehanna from Owego to the Chenango river. 

It is so obvious that most trails came from the situation of town?-. 
changing as these did, that it can be assumed that trails connected 
all friendly towns of any given period. Their rapid obliteration 
may also be inferred from the fact that no one pretends to locate, 
by physical features or oral tradition, any trail used 250 years ago. 
We know the general course of some yet older, but not because any 
one has seen their traces. In still more cases we know where early 
towns stood, but have no hint what thoroughfares led -to other 
places. These certainly existed, but have left no visible signs. 
Indeed it is quite probable that the later trails had their prominent 
features more from the white man's shoes and the hoofs of cattle 
than from the Indian's moccasin. Woodland paths are common 
now by every lake and stream ; when and by whom were they made ? 
Ask our farmers, hunters and fishermen. 

That Indian trails were well defined from Utica westward, soon 
after the Revolution, no one will doubt. That some of them afforded 
the best lines of travel for pioneers is just as clear. The Indian 
was a well trained woodman, and the white man profited by his 
skill, but in the nature of things the great results would have been 
much the same had the latter been left to himself. The New York 
Central Railroad would have gone from Albany to Buffalo had there 
never been an Indian trail in the State. 

Some of these early routes have interest, and the location of some 
on early maps may be mentioned. A few local trails will be also 
referred to, but it is evident that no complete account could be given 
unless we knew the age and nationality of every town. 

The earliest trail which can be traced westward from Albany is 
from the itinerary of Arent Van Curler in 1634. His recorded miles 



TRAILS 39 

are each equal to about 2 English miles, and the latter will be used 
here. There were then no white settlements west of Albany, and 
the Mohawks were all west of Schoharie creek. The first day, 
having traveled 16 miles, he was near the Mohawk river. The 
second he went 2 miles, crossed the river and walked 20 miles more. 
The third he recrossed the Mohawk, and a mile farther came to 
Onekagoncka, the first Mohawk castle. A mile farther Canowarocle 
was passed, and Senatsycrosy at the end of another. Canagere, 
the second castle, was 3 miles beyond, or 44 from Albany. The 
third castle, Sohanidisse, was 3 miles farther. Osguage was a mile 
beyond, and Cawaoge still another. The fourth castle, Tenotoge, 
was 2 miles farther, east of the present Canajoharie, and about 51 
miles from Albany. For at least 13 miles he had followed the south 
bank of the river. Like later travelers, he now soon left it. Leav- 
ing Spraker's he took a westerly course, crossing Canajoharie creek 
but passing south of the next large stream, the Otsquago. That 
day's tramp of 14 miles ended on high land near the west line of 
Montgomery county. The next day 15 miles brought him near 
Jordanville. Next -day he crossed two branches of the Unadilla, 
probably near North Winfield and North Bridgewater, or a little 
farther south, camping a little west of the west branch, after walking 
15 miles. The next day their course was near Sangerfield or Water- 
ville, but at the end of 16 miles they had not quite reached Oriskany 
creek. This they saw next morning, and at the end of 9 miles they 
were at Oneida, east of Oneida creek and near Munnsville. They 
walked through the snow, and the miles seemed long. 

The records of the sojourn of Father Jogues, in 1642 and later, 
tell us nothing of the main trail, still on the south side of the 
Mohawk, but show many minor trails from place to place and for 
many purposes, as we might expect. 

The famous horseback ride of Wentworth Greenhalgh in 1677, 
Avhen he went from Albany almost to the Genesee river, shows a 
little variation. There were four Mohawk castles and one small 
village, all on the north side of the river. That he followed the 
same trail as Van Curler when he left this, may be gathered from 



4O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

his saying that Oneida was " about 30 miles distant from the 
Maquaes river, which lyes to the northward." Onondaga was still 
in Pompey, about 2 miles south of Morgan's later trail. The Seneca 
towns lay north of that route, and he passed Cayuga lake by some 
path available for horses, evidently on the north. 

The trail from the last Mohawk castle to Onondaga changed but 
little for a great length of time, and only as the two places and 
Oneida changed their sites. It was always the practice to leave the 
river at the upper Mohawk town, and take the direct overland trail. 
This is the route laid down on Colonel Romer's map of 1700, and 
when Johannes Bleeker jr and David Schuyler went to Onondaga 
in 1701, they said that they got to Eghwake creek, the east branch 
of the Unadilla, on the evening of June 7. Oneida had been moved 
northeast of its former site, and they reached there next day. Part 
of the early trail had been abandoned, but much of it was still used. 

At that time there was little land travel along the Mohawk above 
Little Falls, yet the portage at Rome was sometimes used. On 
Colonel Romer's map a trail leads from Oneida to that spot, and 
runs at right angles to the main road, from which it was a short day's 
journey. When a trading post was established at Oswego it became 
an important thoroughfare. This is what Romer's companions 
wrote in October 1700: 

loth Col. Romer told us that his instruccons were to see how 
much lesse the Carrying place could be made ; whereupon we 
resolved forthwith to go thither, as we did, with an Indian which 
we hired who shew us the way. nth d We came by a most miser- 
able path to the Carrying Place, w ch we viewed as farr as the Wood 
Creek, when Col. Romer resolved to go to Oneyda. I2th do. In y e 
evening we came to Oneyda. O'Callaghan, 4:807 

From this and the map it will be seen how far the portage was- 
from the main trail. On the map the trail goes from Oneida to 
Onondaga, then on Butternut creek, and from that town the party 
traversed two trails only: one to Onondaga lake and the other to 
the fishing place on Chittenango creek. 

A few years later Onondaga was moved to the east side of Onon- 
daga creek, but this removal had most effect on the branch trails, 



TRAILS 41 

the main one changing but little, still passing the old town a mile 
south of Jamesville, where the pickets long remained. 

Guy Johnson's map of 1771 has a trail from Oneida, through 
" Ganaghsaraga, a Tuscarora town " to Onondaga, and thence by 
way of Owasco lake to the foot of Cayuga, following the north 
bank of Seneca river to Seneca lake and Canadasegy. Canadaragey 
(Canandaigua) next appears, and there are three trails thence to 
Genesee river. The southern goes by Anarara (Honeoye) to 
Chenussio; the middle one direct to the same place, and the third 
to Canawagus, while another runs northeast from Canawagus to the 
head of Irondequoit bay. From Geneseo the trail goes direct to 
Fort Schlosser on Niagara river, and small villages appear along 
the way. A trail ascends the east side of Genesee river, and else- 
where Kanestio is connected with Ganuskago (Dansville). There 
are no trails on the Susquehanna, the river being used instead. 

Sauthier's map of 1779, made by order of Governor Tryon, shows 
some of the changes made as the frontier extended. Some of the 
earlier trails still appear south of the Mohawk, but there are new 
starting places on that river. The German Flats afforded two, and 
there was another road on the north side. Fort Schuyler (Utica) 
had become a starting point for Old Oneida and the towns beyond. 
On this trail were Old Oneyda, Canowaroghare, (now Oneida 
Castle), Canadasseoa and Canassaraga Castle, two Tuscarora towns. 
From the latter one trail went to Three Rivers, and another to 
Onondaga, then on Onondaga creek. From Canowaroghare one 
went to Fort Stanwix, and another to the Royal Blockhouse by way 
of New Oneyda Castle (now Oneida Valley). From the latter 
place one reached Wood creek, while another went to Fort Stanwix. 
Among others one went due north through the wilderness to Ogdens- 
burg, then called Oswegatchie. 

Lieutenant Lodge's map, made in the campaign of 1779, carries 
the trail south of Conesus lake. Pouchot's map has some special 
features, but they are of doubtful value. The Jesuit Relations 
contribute little on this subject, though some make it clear that 
there was a good trail from Salmon river to Onondaga by way of 
Brewerton, and apparently one from the same place to Oneida 



42 NK\V YORK STATE MUSEUM 

passing the other end of Oneida lake. On the Jesuit map of 1665 
the Black and Oswegatchie rivers both bear the title, " R. qui vient 
du coste d'agne " or the Mohawk country. By the latter route the 
Mohawks took Father Poncet back to Canada in 1652. For a con- 
siderable part of the way the routes were one. Gen. J. S. Clark 
has elaborated the full route very clearly, in a note to Rev. Dr 
Charles Hawley's translation of the Relations as they concerned 
the Mohawks. He supposed that one trail from the Mohawk fol- 
lowed its north bank to Rome, continuing along the line of the 
present Rome & Watertown Railroad till it struck Salmon river, 
10 or 12 miles from the lake. From the Mohawk another followed 
the west bank of West Canada creek and near the line of the Black 
River Railroad and Black river to Great Bend. Lake Ontario might 
then be reached by following the stream, or by a portage of a few 
miles to Indian river the St Lawrence might be entered through the 
Oswegatchie. The usual war path of the Mohawks was through 
Lake Champlain and the Sorel river. The lake was reached by 
several trails. 

The trail by which the French usually came to early Onondaga 
led from the mouth of Salmon river to Brewerton, and thence it 
varied as the village moved. The French at last came by way of 
Oswego. Champlain also came by way of Brewerton, but where he 
left Lake Ontario has been much disputed. It was far to the north- 
east of Oswego, and Salmon river has been thought a probable place. 
That he crossed the Chittenango at Bridgeport is likely, and that he 
followed a trail is evident from encountering a party going to the 
fishing place. The path probably led up the ridge east of the 
Chittenango valley, but has left no traces. 

The trails leading to the Susquehanna valley became important 
nearly 200 years ago, when the Iroquois land claims in Pennsyl- 
vania assumed a new aspect. They had been matters for diplomatic 
action, even in the i/th century. When the Iroquois realized that 
there was money in them they sent a resident viceroy to rule their 
subjects there and care for their lands. This and their southern 
wars led to many journeys. As early as 1737 Conrad Weiser was 
sent as an ambassador to Onondaga by way of Owego. In 1743 



TRAILS 43 

he went again with quite a party on horseback, and in the party 
were John Bartram and Lewis Evans. The latter made a map of 
the route, the former wrote the itinerary. In 1745 Bishop Spangen- 
t>erg came over much the same route, and his party also rode. In 
1750 Bishop Cammerhoff and Zeisberger tried a different course, 
coming in canoes as far as Waverly on the Chemung river, and 
going thence to Cayuga on horseback. While previous travelers 
had gone by way of Owego creek and Cortland county, they fol- 
lowed Wynkoop creek, passed Cayuta lake, reached the site of 
Ithaca, and went down the east side of Cayuga lake to the Cayuga 
towns. All of these journals are of interest, but while some parts 
of the route are easily recognized, some are hard to identify, nor 
was the path always quite the same, even in going and returning. 
Between Bartram's account of the road and that of Spangenberg 
there is quite a difference, though they had the same guides and 
made the trip but two years apart. 

Each may be summarized after leaving Owego. Bartram's gen- 
eral course was on the east side of Owego and West creeks, crossing 
a steep hill to a tributary of Fall creek, and passing some ponds in 
the town of Cortland. From the site of Homer he followed the 
west branch of the Tioughnioga, seeing Mount Toppin but not the 
ponds near by, and crossed to a branch of the Susquehanna rising 
in Pompey. Part of Pompey hill was crossed and the Indian vil- 
lage in La Fayette visited. The Onondaga valley was entered from 
the southeast. The route was slightly changed on the return, and 
a branch trail led to Onaquaga. 

In his notes on Spangenberg's journey in 1745, Mr John W. 
Jordan made his route up Owego and Catatonk creeks, leaving the 
latter above Candor, crossing Ganatowcherage or West creek in 
Richford township, passing over Prospect hill in Harford and a 
creek in Virgil which is an affluent of Fall creek, and reaching 
Crandall's pond in Cortland. It may be that the route was up West 
creek instead of Catatonk, as in Bartram's route. From Crandall's 
pond or Lake Ganiataragachrachat they went to Big lake or 
Ganneratareske in Preble, and thence to Oserigooch, the largest lake 



44 NEW YORK STATE MUSEl'M 

in Tully. Beyond this the trail was bad, but they went by way 
of Cardiff, as later travelers did. Most of the trail to Owego was 
so little used that it was hardly discernible even to Indians, who 
depended as much on the lay of the land as the actual path. 

Zeisberger and Frey attempted this route alone in 1753, starting 
properly from Owego, but losing the faint trail so often that they 
were discouraged and turned back. Afterward they were told that 
if they had gone on a day longer they would " have had a good 
road, because two roads meet there, and a road branches off, turning 
toward Cayuga lake. It is much frequented." Their observation 
on this is of interest : 

The Indians had no proper trail, but where they cannot distinguish 
it each one runs through the woods according to his own judgment. 
Consequently it frequently occurs that from two to three miles, and 
farther, there is no visible road. Zeisberger, p. 1753 

On this occasion they finally went up the east branch of the 
Tioughnioga by canoe as far as they could, leaving it northeast of 
Cortland and crossing the hill to Onogariske creek, now called the 
west branch of the Tioughnioga. When they left the river the 
Indian guides " ran hither and thither into the forest, until at length 
they found a path." They reached the west branch between Homer 
and Preble, and " the trail that comes up from Owego, and is quite 
clearly defined here." At the lake the trail divided, one branch 
going to Onondaga and the other to the village of Tueyahdassoo^ 
where other trails diverged. 

It is evident that hundreds of trails have left neither trace nor 
tradition, though some were once of great importance. Wherever 
there were towns or frequent camps there must have been forest 
paths. In a score of counties there was a network of these, old 
and new, almost as complex as our own roads now. No general 
scheme of these is possible, but it may be assumed that all early 
towns were connected and most lakes and valleys were accessible 
by them. Even distant points were reached by the most practicable 
routes. There were war paths, hunting paths and paths of peace. 
Very few of these are on record and it will suffice to mention those 
briefly. 



TRAILS 45 

In Albany county the Indian Ladder road is well known, a recent 
trail from Albany to the Schoharie valley, crossing" the Helderbergs 
in Guilder-land. Five trails were mentioned in Rensselaerville in 
1711, and the Schenectady trail soon became important. 

In Broome county the trail to Binghamton, over Oquaga mountain 
and another nearer Windsor, were worn deep. These were recent,, 
there being no early settled occupation of the county. 

In Cattaraugus county a trail ran through Carrollton, following- 
Cold Spring creek and passing into Napoli on lot 41. A trail from 
Allegheny river followed the same creek into New Albion. Thence 
it went to Niagara Falls and Canada. 

In Cayuga county some trails appear on maps relating to Sulli- 
van's campaign. Gen. John S. Clark placed Thiohero " at the foot 
of Cayuga lake, on the east side, at the exact point where the bridge 
of the Middle Turnpike left the east shore. The trail across the 
marsh followed the north bank of an ancient channel of the Seneca 
river." The early trails were very many, and the Moravians 
described some. 

There are a few trails on record in Chemung county, and some 
appear on the Susquehanna in Chenango county. In Columbia 
county the stone heaps were by Indian trails, and on the map of 
the Livingston patent a trail crosses it midway from east to west. 
Reference has been made to trails in Cortland county, followed by 
the Moravians. 

A wide trail followed the Charlotte river in Delaware county, in 
1786. In Franklin county are early and recent portages. A trail 
called the Catskill Path led from Castle Heights due north to the 
Coxsackie plains in Greene county. Some recent portages alone 
represent the many early trails of Jefferson county, but the recent 
trails of Madison county are better known. One of these was from 
Oneida to Chittenango, and thence to Onondaga, passing some dis- 
tance south of Canaseraga. A well defined trail went from Oneida 
creek, through the west part of Hamilton, and down the Chenango 
river. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras came up that river in canoes 
as far as they could, and diverged to their several towns. 



46 NK\\ VOKK STATK MrsKf.M 

Mr George H. Harris has left us an excellent account of the trails 
in the lower Genesee valley, and his judicious remarks are quoted 
here: 

In general appearance these roads did not differ in any particular 
from the ordinary woods or meadow path of the present day. They 
were narrow and winding, but usually connected the objective 
points by as direct a course as natural obstacles would permit. In 
the general course of a trail three points were carefully considered 
first, seclusion ; second, directness, and, third, a dry path. The trail 
beaten was seldom over 15 inches broad, passing to the right or 
left of trees or other obstacles, around swamps and occasionally 
over the apex of elevations, though it generally ran a little one side 
of the extreme top, especially in exposed situations. . . Fallen 
trees and logs were never removed, the trail was either continued 
over or took a turn around them. The Indians built no bridges, 
small streams were forded or crossed on logs, while rivers and lakes 
were ferried on rafts or in canoes. Harris, p.37 

To these general rules exceptions will be found, as in the case 
of bridges, and sometimes swamps. Mr Harris noted a branch trail 
from Canandaigua lake to the head of Irondequoit bay, then to 
Genesee falls and along the lake ridge to the Niagara river. Trails 
converged above and below Rochester at two points. The trail from 
Canandaigua was on the Pittsford road, dividing a little east of 
Allen's creek, and going to Brewer's landing. Several branch trails 
diverged from it. The other trail reached the river near Franklin 
and North St Paul streets. 

A trail came to South Rochester from Caledonia springs. Several 
others are mentioned in and about the city, two being portage trails. 
There were others about Irondequoit bay, but he differs from 
Morgan only in added details. Mr O. H. Marshall also described 
the trails followed by De Nonville's army in 1687. 

Mr Irving W. Coates said that five trails met at Littleville, on 
the Canandaigua outlet in Ontario county, and traced their general 
course. Others were mentioned in Sullivan's campaign and in the 
Moravian journal. 

Mr Jeptha R. Simms mentioned several trails in Schoharie county, 
with more details than Morgan gave. In Ulster county a great 
trail started from Saugerties, followed the Esopus, crossing to the 



TRAILS 47 

Rondout at Marbletown, leaving that stream at Napanoch, passing 
through Mamakating hollow, and reaching the mouth of the Never- 
sink river at Port Jervis. In these and other cases most of the trails 
are modern. 

With these data before us, and admitting a general truth, we can 
see that the Cayuga chief Wa-o-wo-wa-no'-onk, or Peter Wilson, 
was somewhat rhetorical when he said : 

The Empire State, as you love to call it, was once laced by our 
trails from Albany to Buffalo, trails that we had trod for centuries 
trails worn so deep by the feet of the Iroquois that they became 
your roads of travel, as your possessions gradually eat into those of 
my people. Your roads still traverse those same lines of communi- 
cation which bound one part of the Long House to the other. 



ADDENDA 

The work of examining collections and sites has thus far been a 
personal one, the practical results of which come to the State 
Museum. It is a present gratification to secure figures and descrip- 
tions for record and preservation, but it is hoped that this will be 
of future advantage to the public. Out of these may be selected 
many for publication by the writer or others. Since the bulletin on 
metallic implements was published several fine articles of native 
copper have come to light and been figured, described and recorded, 
but they are axes, spears and celts, much like those already figured. 
A later history has been secured of the largest native copper imple- 
ment found here, and drawings have been made of some recent 
metallic pipes. Bone articles are still obtained, Onondaga and 
Montgomery counties yielding most harpoons. One unique bone 
article belongs to Mr H. A. Pride of Holland Patent. It is flat, 
curved, and much like a small double pointed harpoon, with a single 
barb toward each end of the concave edge. This edge expands 
toward the center, allowing a perforation in the widest part. The 
convex edge has notches and one surface is ornamented with lines. 
Mr Pride has some fine pipes and one undrilled bannerstone of 
striped slate. A fine flat and curved bone article, which he took 
from a grave, he gave to the writer. It is sharp at both ends and 
has parallel grooves at one. 

Mr Fred C. Gabriel has found many peculiarly grooved and 
worked elliptic pebbles on the west side of Seneca lake near Watkins 
N. Y., the grooves being picked or ground, and usually the long 
way. Some are otherwise worked. They could not have been used 
as hammers and seem too elaborate for sinkers. Being usually found 
in pairs they suggest the bolas, and this or the sling stone might 
have been moderately used in open woods. In dense woods they 
could not have been thrown, but the Indians often burned the under- 
brush. Such stones occur on Cayuga and Seneca lakes, but mostly 
at the head of the last. Some graves near the latter lake have been 
particularly described. A fine stone bird pipe was also found near 
Watkins. The claws, tail and closed wings are well defined, and 



ADDENDA 49 

it is 3^4 inches high. An unfinished bird amulet was also found 
there, and also a cuneiform slate knife, a rarity in that region. 

A fine red sandstone plummet, 3^5 inches long, is from Rowland 
island, north of Cayuga lake, the farthest west any such article has 
been found on Seneca river. A beautiful and slender one is from 
Jefferson county. A smooth pipe of red sandstone, found near 
Savannah N. Y., weighs i pound $% ounces. A peculiar Onon- 
daga clay pipe, with many grotesque human faces, has heretofore 
been found only on a site west of Cazenovia. A stem now in the 
writer's hands, came from Canoga, on the west shore of Cayuga 
lake. It has the character of all the rest, but had been carried there 
and used as a bead. 

A grave was opened near Athens, Greene co., in 1899 by Dr A. H. 
Getty of that place, on the Saunders farm. It was in a sand bed 
and paved with cobblestones brought several miles. The remaining 
bones and relics were about 4 feet under ground. It contained 300 
globular native copper beads, 16 good sized shell beads of unusual 
form, 4 longer ones perforated at each end, and a slate gorget with 
one hole. All these are now in the State Museum. 

In the fall of 1903 Mr E. Hollenbeck found an olive green tube 
of banded slate at Hoffman's Ferry. It is somewhat flattened and 
has a groove across one end. Near this is a small lateral perfora- 
tion, much like the vent of old guns in appearance and position. 
In this respect it is unique. The length is 4^ inches. 

An ossuary was opened Sep. 8, 1904, in low ground, a mile east 
of Macedon, Wayne co., and near the creek. Dr C. P. Jennings, 
who superintended the excavation, writes : " We found there, in 
one pit, at least 60 skeletons within an area of i rod square and 
about 3 feet deep." Six large stones were found with these, but 
no relics. 

Mr J. E. Mattern, of West Rush, Monroe co., writes : " I know 
-of a few burial sites not mentioned in your bulletin on sites. One 
is about 6 feet in diameter and I took about 20 skeletons out of it. 
The bones were in all shapes. They were thrown in after the flesh 
was gone. Last fall I found another about 10 feet from the one 
mentioned, still larger. I took out 30 skeletons and did not dig it 



50 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

all out. I found a flint knife, 3 shell beads and a bone awl." He 
reported 10,000 pieces in his collection. 

In Watertown, Jefferson co., Mr R. D. Loveland added nearly 
40 pipes in 1904 to his already fine collection, and a large number 
of bone articles. In both there were pieces of very great interest. 
A barbed bone fishhook is now in his cabinet. Messrs Ainidon, Get- 
man, Loveland, Wood worth and others could furnish a notable 
exhibit for the Jefferson county centennial. 

The evolution of the human face on pottery has been finely illus- 
trated by a complete series from Jefferson county. First are the 
three circles arranged for eyes and mouth ; then three horizontal 
ellipses, either in lines or excavations ; these are next inclosed in a 
diamond, followed by a pentagon and hexagon ; then lines are incised 
for the nostrils and sides of the nose ; and last comes the human 
face, as yet rare in that county. The absence of this class of pottery 
from Oneida sites has long been a matter of surprise to the writer, 
but now he has an example from Fish creek in Oneida county, 
though none from a village site. This has the slender form of a 
man, with the usual conventional body and limbs. A still more 
interesting find was that of Mr A. B. Skinner on Staten Island 
made last spring. On a camp site he found most of the rim of an 
earthen vessel, having "rude raised human faces upon it." They are 
small, four in number, and at some distance from the top of the ves- 
sel, which had a pointed base, like most others there. It should be 
added that it was from a shell heap, of which Mr Skinner said : 
" No horn or bone implements obtained here. Recent relics, such 
as a brass arrow point, bullets, gunflints, etc.. have been found." 
The inference would be that it was either the work of an Iroquois 
captive or of an Algonquin who had been in the hands of that people. 
at a recent date. 

A gouge with ridged back, from Lysander, is of interest, and long 
and fine gouges have been found in Chautauqua county. One collec- 
tion has several fine stone mortars from Seneca river, and another 
has one which is long, elliptic and shallow. A small and deep one 
came from Chautauqua county. A curious and pretty one is from 
Oneida creek and may have been used for paint. It is small and 



ADDENDA 51 

almost globular, being 2^4 inches wide by 2 deep, flattened below, 
and with an excavation nearly an inch in depth. From the same 
place came a fine elliptic grooved granite hammer, 6-Hs inches high 
by 3^ thick. A rougher one was found with this. Mr Skinner 
reports a number of grooved axes found on Staten Island, of various 
types. One weighed 15 pounds, which makes it one of the largest 
size. They are rather frequent on Long Island, and occur also along 
the Pennsylvania line. 

In the bulletin on wampum it was noted that a wampum belt 
attached to an Oneida treaty of 1788 could not readily be found 
for illustration. It is now on exhibition in the State Library with 
the original record, and is well worth attention from its beauty and 
known history and use. The length is about 27 inches, with 6 rows 
and 4 diagonal double bars on the white ground. In the Archaeo- 
logical Report of the Province of Ontario, 1901, are figures and 
accounts of 4 fine Ottawa belts. One has the date of 1764 on it, 
and another of 1786. A third has an officer's name, and may be 
assigned to 1815. The fourth is credited to the same year as the 
first. Among other belts examined is one now in the National 
Museum, which is 2 feet long and 8 rows wide. An open square 
at each end is joined to the other by a central black line. 

Ap. n, 1903, Mr Alanson B. Skinner read a paper before the 
Natural Science Association of Staten Island on aboriginal sites 
found there, enumerating 24 of these, but afterward adding two 
more. The following are those mentioned in his paper, but he said 
that there were probably others along the south and east shores 
not yet observed. 

1 Village and cemetery at Pelton's cove, between Livingston 
and West New Brighton. The cemetery was large. 

2 Village at West New Brighton, between Cedar and Dongan 
streets. Skeletons and implements were found in the spring of 1903. 

3 At Mariner's Harbor was a village site between Blue-Bent 
field and Western avenue, near the shore. Shell heap opened in 
1902 near Arlington station. Grooved axes and other early articles. 

4 Village on Tuinessen's or Old Place neck. The earthen 
vessel mentioned came from a shell heap there. Recent relics. 



52 NEW YORK STATE Ml SUM 

5 Relics abundant in sand dunes and hills at Bloomfield. 

6 Lodges about Watchogue road, near Union avenue, Chelsea. 

7 Lodges along the north side of Long neck, Linoleumville. 

8 Lodges on the south side of the neck. No relics in shell pits. 

9 Site with graves at New Springville, on Corson's brook. 

10 Camp between Journeay avenue and Annadale road, Green 
Ridge. Early relics. 

n Small village on Lake's Meadow island. Early relics. 

12 Small village on Sandy brook, between Pleasant Plains road 
and Journeay avenue. Early relics. 

13 Lodges from Cedar hill to AYinant's brook, and along the 
shore to Rossville. Early relics. 

14 Shell mounds and cemetery near Billopp house, Tottenville. 
Early and recent relics. Grooved ax of 15 pounds. 

15 Site at Bunker hill, Huguenot, near Arbutus lake. 

16 Shell heap on bluff near Seguine's point. 

17 Site on Richmond avenue, near Arrochar station. Probably 
others near. 

18 Camp at Harbor hill, New Brighton, a little above Castleton 
avenue. 

19 Camps at Silver lake. Relics along the shore near St George. 

20 Camp on Harbor hill near Harbor brook and Lafayette 
avenue. 

21 Camp near Bard avenue and Clove road, above Schoenian's 
pond. 

22 Large camp back of Richmond, near Ketchum's mill pond. 

23 Shell heap on salt meadow, Oakwood, near Lake's mill. 

24 Site with many triangular arrows on Ward's hill, near Cebra 
avenue, Tompkinsville. There were shells and scattered relics near 
most of these places. 



EXPLANATIONS OF PLATES 
Plate 1 



54 KEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Road map of Perch lake and vicinity, from an atlas of Jefferson 
county. In this the lake differs much in outline and extent from 
the contour map, but may have been fairly accurate at an earlier 
day. All remaining mounds on the east side are between the high- 
way and the lake. In a few cases they are at some distance from 
the shore. Quite a space separates this long group from the one 
on Linnell's island. It is said that some mounds were formerly 
near Seven Bridges, on Perch river. 



Plate 1 




Plate 2 



56 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A sketch map of Linnell's island, by Dr Getman, showing the 
general arrangement of mounds observed on the Klock and Galley 
farms in 1903. This terrace is southwest of Perch lake, and was 
formerly surrounded by swamps, showing a higher stage of water 
in the lake in earlier days. This subsidence has greatly changed 
the outline of the lake. 



Plate 2 



Hill 




Plate 3 



58 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Contour map of Perch lake and vicinity, showing numerous low 
terraces in the thin soil. In many parts these terraced rocks are 
nearly or quite bare. On the southeastern shore of the lake the 
slope is quite abrupt. On the west shore the extensive swamps, 
separating the cliffs from the lake, probably always hindered much 
occupation, but the proximity of the river to Linnell's island made 
that a desirable residence. 



Plate 3 




Plate 4 



60 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Medium sized mound on the second terrace east of Hyde creek, 
and not far from it. The depression in the center of this is charac- 
teristic of nearly all near the creek and lake, and excavation showed 
the original rectangular fireplace, bordered with flat stones. Like 
nearly all others it is in open woodland. The extreme width is 
about 30 feet. A plan of this appears on plate 12. 



Plate 5 



62 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A larger mound near the north line of the Timmerman farm. 
This is about 36 feet across from the extreme points of the slope, 
which is always gentlest near the edge and more abrupt as it 
approaches the center. This mound is less depressed in the center 
than most of those on that side of the lake. 



oJ 

i i 

Put 




Plate 6 



64 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A low and small mound on the Timmerman farm, shows the usual 
formation, but at noonday might be passed unobserved. Early or 
late in the day its character is clear. Being in the incipient stage 
it is but 19 feet across. 



Plate 7 



66 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A low mound, on the same farm as that shown on plate 6, which 
is but 21 feet across. Though net large it is very symmetric. The 
central depression is wide and deep. 



68 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A fine mound on the Timmerman farm, at the base of a hill. 
Partly excavated in 1901. This is 33 feet wide and about 5 feet 
high. There are but few trees near this and it is a prominent 
object. 



Plate 9 



7O NKW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Mound near the ruined La Farge mansion. Another joins it at 
the base. It is not one of the largest size, but is in open ground on 
a lower terrace than the house and stands out prominently against 
the background of the lake. This mound has an extreme width of 
34 feet. 



Plate 10 



72 M:\V YORK STATE MCSHUM 



Figure I is a sketch, furnished by Harlan I. Smith, being a sec- 
tion of an earth hut of the Thompson River Indians, showing how 
mounds of this kind are sometimes formed. 

Figure 2 is a plan of a mound on the Bay of Quinte, on the north 
shore of Lake Ontario, and showing a central excavation. 

Fig. 3 Section of a mound at the same place, showing the interior 
filled with stones, the covering of soil and the central depression. 



Plate 10 






Plate 11 



74 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Truncated mound excavated by Dr A. L. Benedict in 1900, on 
the east side of Cattaraugus creek, N. Y. The upper figure is of 
the recent condition and probable original form. The plan shows 
the position of various points of interest reached in excavating. 
At A, were animal bones ; at B, pieces of Hamilton slate ; at C, 
human bones. Mound diameter, 70 feet. 

Fig. 2 A mound near the same creek and much like the last. 
At A and H, gravel was found ; at F, a stone fireplace ; at B, were 
human bones. There was also charred wood. 



Plate 11 











Plate 12 



76 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Supposed deer pound by a pond near Unadilla. A, is the pond ; 
C, moraines ; D, a road around the pond ; E, F, G, I, stone walls ; 
H, stone circles ; K, a graded way. 

Fig. 2 Plan of a Perch lake mound. A, the outer slope ; B, the 
crown of the ridge ; C, the inner slope ; D, rectangular stone fire- 
place in the center. This is the ground plan of mound shown on 
plate 4. 



Plate 12 




TT7T .T 3_ 



V 



INDEX 



The superior figures tell the exact place on the page in ninths ; e. g. 37 s 
means page 37 beginning in the third ninth of the page, i. e. about one third 
of the way down. 



Akron, if 

Albany, 33 3 ,38 1 , 38 9 , 39V 45 1 
Albany county, trails, 45 1 
Allegany county, mounds, 25" 
Allegheny river, 25, 45''* 
Allen's creek, 46 e 

Amidon, R. W., cited, 3 5 ; men- 
tioned, 28", 50' 
Amulet, 28' 
Anarara, 4i = 

Arrowheads, 13", ig 5 , 28 5 
Athens, 49* 
Auburn, 35'^ 
Avon, 36 
Axes, 30", 48", 51" 

Baldwinsville, 30 5 

Bartram, John, mentioned, 43 1 ; 

cited, 43* 
Batavia, 36* 
Beads, 3O 2 , 49" 

Beauehamp, W. M., cited, 3 s , 5" 
Benedict, A. L., cited, 3, 26', 27' 
Big lake, 43 
Binghamton, 37 s , 45" 
Bird amulet, 49 l 
Bird pipe, 48 
Black creek, 36 
Black river, 5 s , 27", 42*, 42* 
Bleeker, Johannes, jr, mentioned, 

40 3 

Bluff point, 3i 5 
Bone articles, 6 s , 48* 
Bone awl, n l 
Bone bead, 28 
Bone fort, 27 s 
Bone hill, 30* 
Bone implements, 28 5 



Bone needles, 19* 

Bones, 6, f, 8\ 8 7 , io 2 ; Algonquin 

superstition, 22" 
Boyle, David, cited, 3 
Brass kettles, 30" 
Brass rings, 30* 
Brewer's landing, 46" 
Brewerton, 41, 42" 
Bridgeport, 42 7 
Broome county, trails, 45" 
Bryant, William C, mentioned, 26* 
Bucktooth, 25 3 
Buffalo, 37"; Indian fort, mound 

near, 27" 

Burnt stones, 5*, 5, 5, 8 3 
Butternut creek, 40" 



Caledonia spring, 36, 46 7 

California, Indian rancherias at, 7" 

Cambria, 29^ 

Camillus, 35" 

Cammerhoff, Bishop, cited, 3"; men- 
tioned, 43 3 

Canada, 45 3 

Canadaragey, 41' 

Canadasegy, 41' 

Canadasseoa, 41 

Canagere, 39" 

Canajoharie, 34 1 , 37, 39* 

Canajoharie creek, 39* 

Canandaigua, 35, 36% 36*, 36', 36 7 , 
4i 3 , 46 

Canandaigua lake, 36', 36", 46'' 

Canaseraga, 34', 45* 

Canaseraga creek, 36' 

Canassaraga Castle, 41" 

Canastota, 34' 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Canawagus, 41" 

Candor, 43* 

Canoga, 49" 

Canowarode, 39' 

Canowaroghare, 41* 

Cardiff, 44 l 

Carlton, 30* 

Carrollton, 45* 

Caryville, 27", 36* 

Cassadaga lake, 25* 

Castle Heights, 45' 

Catatonk creek, 43* 

Catskill creek, 38' 

Catskill Path, 45' 

Cattaraugus county, mounds, 25'; 

trails, 45 

Cattaraugus creek, 26*, 26* 
Cawaoge, 39* 
Cayuga, 41*, 43* 
Cayuga county, mounds, 25"; trails, 

45 4 
Cayuga lake, 35', 35', 40*, 43'. 44\ 45', 

48*, 49*. 49" 
Cayuga towns, 43* 
Cayuta lake, 43* 
Cecil, Harry B., cited, 3*, 32"; thanks 

to, 31" 

Celts, 13*, 48* 
Champlain, mentioned, 42 
Charcoal, 5" 
Charlotte river, 37*, 4S T 
Charred corn, 5* 
Chautauqua county, mounds, 25"; 

gouges, 50' 
Chautauqua lake, 25' 
Chemung county, trails, 45" 
Chemung river, 38', 43' 
Chenango county, mounds, 26"; 

trails, 45* 

Chenango river, 37*, 38*, 45" 
Chenussio, 41" 
Cherry Valley creek, 37" 
Chittenango, 34", 45* 
Chittenango creek, 40", 42 T 
Clarence Hollow, 37* 
Clark, John S., cited, 3 T , 34*; men- 
tioned, 42*, 45* 
Clay pipe, 19', 49* 
Clifton Springs, 3O 7 
Coates, Irving W., cited, 46' 



Cobleskill creek, 37* 

Cold Spriiyr, 25', 37' 

Cold Spring creek, 25*, 25*, 45"" 

Columbia county, mounds. 26"; 

trails, 45'' 

Conesns lake, 36', 36*, 41* 
Conewango, 25', 25" 
Cooperstown, 30* 
Copley, Knorli II.. mounil on ("arm, 

33' 

Copper implements. 4.X 3 
Cortland, 43', 43*. 44 s 
Cortland county, trails, 43', 45* 
CoxFackie plains, 45' 
Crandall's pond, 43* 
Crusoe creek, 31* 

Dansville, _>8". 41' 

Danube, 3.;.' 

Dayton, 25' 

Deep Spring, 34 T 

Delaware county, trails, 45 7 

Dillenbeck. A. J.. mounds on farm, 



Eghwake creek. 40* 

F.lbridge, 35- 

Ellington, 25' 

Emerson, Edgar E., cited, 3 7 , 8" 

Erie county, mounds, 26', 27* 

Esopus creek, 46* 
( Evans, Lewis, mentioned, 43' 
i Explanations of plates, 53-76 

Fall creek, 43", 43* 

Eirestones, 8 

Eish creek, 50* 

Flint chips. 5' 

Flint implements, 8 7 

Flint knife, 13* 

Fluvanna, 25' 
j Fonda, 34' 

Fort Plain, 34' 

Fort Schlosser, 41* 

Fort Schuyler, 41" 

Fort Stanwix, 4I T 
; Foxes creek, 37' 

Franklin county, mound, 27'; 

trails, 45 T 
| Fredonia, 25* 



INDEX TO PERCH LAKE MOUNDS 



79 



French, J. H., cited, $, 5 
Frey, mentioned, 44 3 

Gabriel, Fred C, mentioned, 48' 
Gailey, Clarence, mentioned, 18"', 18" 
Gailey, John, mounds on farm of, 

_5 _8 -9 01 

5 , 5, 7 -o 
Ganaghsaraga, 41' 
Ganataqueh, 36' 
Ganatowcherage, 43 s 
Ganiatarage, 35' 
Ganneratareske, 43* 
Ganowauges, 36 
Gansevoort, Colonel, route, 35* 
Ganuskago, 41' 
Gasport, 29" 

Genesee county, mounds, 27* 
Genesee falls, 46* 
Genesee river, 29', 36*, 36, 36', 37% 

37", 41', 4i 4 

Genesee valley, trails, 46' 

Geneseo, 36', 36', 36', 4i 3 

Geneva, 30', 35 

German Flats, 41^ 

Getman, A. A., cited, 3 s , 8 3 , i8 2 ; 
mentioned, 50* 

Getman, S., mentioned, I3 3 ; mounds 
on farm of, 13' 

Getty, A. H., mentioned, 49* 

Gistweahna, 35'" 

Gorget, 49' 

Gouge, 50" 

Great Bend, 42* 

Great Gully brook, 35" 

Green lake, 34" 

Greene, 26" 

Greene county, trails, 45 s ; bones 
and relics, 49* 

Greenhalgh, Wentworth, men- 
tioned, 39 s 

Groveland, 28 

Guilderland, 45' 

Hachniage, 36" 
Hamilton, 45 
Hammer, 51' 
Harford, 43" 
Harpoons, 48* 

Harris, George H., cited, 3", 46'; 
mentioned, 29* 



Hawley, Charles, mentioned, 42 : 

Helderbergs, 37, 45' 

Hemlock lake, 28 7 , 36', 36* 

Herkimer county, trails, 34' 

Hoffman's Ferry, 49" 

Hollenbeck, E., mentioned, 49" 

Homer, 43, 44 

Honeoye, 36*, 41* 

Honeoye Falls, 36* 

Honeoye lake, 36* 

Hope well, 36" 

Horn implements, 28""' 

Hough, F. B., cited, 3', 5'-, S~ 

Howland island, 49' 

Hudson river, 38 l 

Hut rings, 19", 27" 

Hyde creek, 5*, 8 5 , I2 8 , 13" 

Indian brook, 26" 

Indian Ladder road, 38 l , 45* 

Indian river, 42* 

Irondequoit bay, 29', 37', 41*, 46*, 

46 r 
Ithaca, 43 3 

Jamestown, 2-,' 

Jamesville, 34*, 4i l 

Jefferson county, mounds, 5*, 27"; 
trails, 45'; plummet from, 49*; 
bones and relics, 50' 

Jennings, C. P., cited, 3"; men- 
tioned, 49 T 

Jogues, Father, cited, 39 7 

Johnson, Guy, cited, 34"; map of 
/77', 36 7 , 41 l 

Johnstown, 34 2 

Jordan, John W., cited, 3'; men- 
tioned, 43 s 

Jordanville, 39* 

Kanatagowa, 35 l 

Kanestio, 41* 

Klock, A., mounds on farm, 5 s , 5" 

La Farge mansion, 8 9 , n 6 , 16*, 17* 
La Fayette, 43 T 
Lake Champlain, 42* 
Lake Ganiataragachrachat, 43" 
Lake Ontario, mounds on north 
shore, g* 



8o 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Leon, 25* 

Leroy, 36' 

Lewis county, mounds, 27* 

Lewiston, 29", 37* 

Lima, 28', 36* 

Linnell's island, 5*, 18* 

Little Beard's town, 36* 

Littleville, 46* 

Livingston county, mounds, 28" 

Lockport, 29", 37* 

Lodge, Lieutenant, map, 41* 

Loveland, R. D., mentioned, IQ I , 

SO 1 , SO 3 
Loveland, Mrs R. D., mentioned, 

28 l 

Lowell creek, 5* 
Lysander, 50* 

Macedon, 49' 

Mackay, John, cited, 3"; mentioned, 

29', 30* 
Madison county, mounds, 28'; 

trails, 45* 

Mamakating hollow, 47' 
Manlius, 34 T 
Marbletown, 47* 
Marcellus village, 35* 
Marshall, O. H., cited, 46' 
Marvin, D. S., cited, 3', 6 4 -7* 
Massassaga point, 9* 
Mattern, J. E., cited, 3'; quoted, 49"- 

50 l 

Mayhew, G. F., cited, 4*, 19* 
Mendon, 36 T 

Metallic implements, 48* 
Middleburg, 38* 
Mohawk castles, 39'; upper, 34'; 

lower, 37*; first, 39 5 
Mohawk river, 39', 42* 
Monroe county, mounds, 29' 
Moravian journals, 34* 
Morgan, L. H., cited, 4*, 33*, 37* 
Mt Morris, 28' 
Mt Toppin, 43* 
Munnsville, 39 T 

Napanoch, 47' 
Napoli, 25*, 45* 
Neversink river, 47' 



New Albion, 45" 

New York city, burial mounds, 

30* 

Newark Valley, 31' 
Niagara county, mounds, 29 1 
Niagara Falls, 45* 
Niagara river, 41*, 46* 
Noehnta creek, 36* 
North Bridgewater, 39* 
North Winfield, 39' 
Nuquiage, 35' 

Oak Orchard creek, 30* 

O'Callaghan, E. B., cited, 4', 40' 

Ogdensburg, 41' 

Ohegechrage, 36* 

Olean, 25* 

Onaquaga, 43' 

Oneida, 34", 39 T , 40*, 40', 40', 41', 
41', 41*. 45 s 

Oneida Castle, 34', 34', 41 

Oneida county, mounds, 30*; pot- 
tery, 50' 

Oneida creek, 39', 45*, 50* 

Oneida lake, 28*, 42' 

Oneida Valley, 41' 

Oneidas, 45* 

Onekagoncka, 39' 

Oneonta, 30* 

Onnachee, 36* 

Onogariske creek, 44" 

Onondaga, 34 7 , 35', 40', 40% 40*, 41', 
4i T , 41*. 42 s , 42', 44*. 45 s 

Onondaga county, mounds, 30* 

Onondaga creek, 40', 41' 

Onondaga lake, 40* 

Onondaga Valley, 34', 35', 43' 

Ontario county, trails, 46* 

Oquaga mountain, 45* 

Oriskany, 34* 

Oriskany creek, 39* 

Orleans county, mounds, 30* 

Oserigooch, 43* 

Osguage, 39* 

Ossuary, 27*, 29*, 49' 

Oswegatchie, 41', 42* 

Oswegatchie river, 42* 

Oswego, 37*, 42* 

Oswego Falls, 30* 

Otsquago, 39* 



INDEX TO PERCH LAKE MOUNDS 



8l 



Owasco creek, 35" 

Owasco lake, 35*, 41" 

Owego, 3i l , 38 3 , 42', 43 5 , 44\ 44 s , 44 s 

Owego creek, 43", 43', 43' 

Pebbles, 48 7 

Penfield, 29' 

Pittsford, 29 3 

Pittsford road, 46 6 

Plates, explanations of, 53-76 

Plummet, 49* 

Pomeroy, Oren, cited, if, 18" 

Pompey, 40', 43' 

Poncet, Father, mentioned, 42^ 

Port Jervis, 47* 

Portage, 31* 

Pottery, $\ 5", 6 3 , 6", 8 7 , 13*, is 7 , if, 

IQ 1 , I9 5 , 2I 2 , 2I 5 , SO 8 

Pouchot's map, 36 T , 41* 

Preble, 43", 44' 

Pride, H. A., mentioned, 48 5 

Prospect Hill, 43* 

Putnam, F. W., cited, 4 2 , 2i 7 

Quinte, Bay of, mounds on shores 
of, 9 s 

Randolph, 25' 

Relations des Jesuit es, cited, 4 s , 22*- 

23', 4i 9 

Rensselaerville, 45 1 
Rings, 30 2 
Rochester, 46" 
Rome, 4O 5 , 42* 
Romer, Colonel, cited, 34; map, 40', 

40 5 

Rondout creek, 47' 
Royal Blockhouse, 4i 7 
Royalton, 37 l 
Rutledge, 25' 

St Lawrence river, burial mounds, 

27 s 

St Regis island, 27 7 
Salmon river, 41*, 42*, 42' 
Sandstone, 49 2 
Sangerfield, 39' 
Saugerties, 46* 
Sauthiers map of i?79, 41* 



Savannah, 31", 31", 49" 
Sayles farm, mounds, is'-iG 1 
Schenectady trail, 33*, 45 2 
Schoharie county, mounds, 26'; 

trails, 46" 

Schoharie creek, 37', 38" 
Schoharie valley, 45 1 
Schuyler, David, mentioned, 4O 3 
Scottsburg, 28 T 
Scottsville, 29 1 
Senatsycrosy, 39* 
Seneca castle, 35* 
Seneca Falls, 35" 
Seneca lake, 35", 35', 41", 48', 48* 
Seneca river, 35', 41-, 45^, 50 
Seneca towns, 40' 
Sennett, 35 2 
Shell ornaments, 30' 
Sherman, George W., mounds on 

farm, 8 

Simms, Jeptha R., cited, 46" 
Skaneateles lake, 35* 
Skeletons, io 8 , 25 3 , 25', 28 s , 29" 
Skinner, Alanson B., cited, 4', 51"- 

52; mentioned, 50", 5i 2 
Slate knife, 49' 

Smith, Harlan I., cited, 4 3 , 19* 
Sohanidisse, 39* 
Sorel river, 42* 
South Rochester, 46 7 
Spangenberg, Bishop, cited, 43', 43*, 

43 s 

Spears, 48' 
Spraker's, 39* 
Spring lake, 25* 
Squier, cited, 5 2 
Stafford, 36' 
Staten Island, 5i 2 ; aboriginal sites, 

5i-52 

Stone implements, 8 7 
Stone pipes, 8 1 
Susquehanna river, 37*, 38 2 , 41*, 43", 

45" 

Susquehanna valley, 42* 
Sword blades, 30* 

Tehondaloga, 34' 
Tenotoge, 39* 
Thiohero, 45* 



82 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Thomas, Cyrus, cited, 4*, 7*, 2O 4 -2i', 

22 l 

Three Rivers, 41* 

Timmermun farm, mounds on, 13*, 

i4'-i 5 f 

Tioga county, mounds, 31* 
Tioga point, 37' 
Tioughhioga, 43*, 44* 
Tonawanda, 37 l 
Tonawanda creek, 27', 36* 
Tonawanda island, 29* 
Trails, 33-52 

Trent river, mounds on, 9" 
Tueyahdassoo, 44* 
Tully, 44 l 

Tuscarora village, 37*, 37* 
Tuscaroras, 45* 
Twining, J. S., cited, 4*, 5 T , 6 1 

Ulster county, trails, 46" 
Unadilla, 30', 31" 
Unadilla river, 37*, 39* 
Utica, 34', 41* 

Van Curler, Art-lit, mentioned, 34*; 

cited, 38" 
Van De Walker, Alonzo, mounds 

on farm, 8", 13* 
Verona, 34* 
Victor, 36' 
Virgil, 43' 



Wallbrjdge, Thomas C, cited, 4', 
9 1 , 9", 10", ii* 

\\ ampum belt, 51* 

Waowowanoonk, quoted, 47* 

Watertown, so 1 

\Vaterville, 39* 

Watkins, 48' 

Waverly, 43' 

Wayne county, mounds, 31"; ossu- 
ary, 49 J 

Weiser, Conrad, mentioned, 42* 

West Bloomfield, 36* 

\\Vst Canada creek, 42* 

West creek, 43*, 43' 

Whitesboro, 34* 

Williamsville, 37* 

Wilson, James Grant, cited, 4* 

Wilson, Peter, quoted, 47* 

Wilson, 29* 

Windsor, 4S' J 

Wood creek, 41' 

Woodworth, Henry, cited, 4"', 6% 
/-8*, 5<r 

Wynkoop creek, 43* 

Wyoming county, mounds, 31* 

Yates county, mounds, 31* 

Zeisberger, David, cited, 4', 44*; 

mentioned, 43* 
Zonesschio, 36* 



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Pa7 (63) Stratigraphy of Canandaigua and Naples Quadrangles. 78p. 

map. June 1904. 2$c. 
Pa8 (65) Catalogue of Type Specimens of Paleozoic Fossils in the New 

York State Museum. 848?. May 1903. $1.20, cloth. 
Pa9 (69) Report of the State Paleontologist 1902. 464?. 52pl. 8 maps. 

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PalO (80) - - Report of the State Paleontologist 1903. 396p. 2Opl. map. 

Feb. 1905. 8$c, cloth. 
Pall (81) - & Luther, D.D. Watkins and Elmira Quadrangles. 32p. map. 

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Pal2 (82) Geologic Map of the Tully Quadrangle. 4Op. map. Ap. 1905. 

2OC. 

Grabau, A. W. Guide to the Geology and Paleontology of the Schoharie 

Region. In press. 
Ruedemann, Rudolf. Cephalopoda of Beekmantown and Chazy Formations 

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Zoology. Zl (1) Marshall, W: B. Preliminary List of New York Unionidae. 

2op. Mar. 1892. 5<r. 
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24p. ipl. Aug. 1890. IDC. 
Z3 (29) Miller, G. S. jr. Preliminary List of New York Mammals. 124?. 

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Z4 (33) Farr, M. S. Check List of New York Birds. 224?. Ap. 1900. 2$c. 
Z5 (38) Miller, G. S. jr. Key to the Land Mammals of Northeastern North 

America. io6p. Oct. 1900. zsc. 
Z6 (40) Simpson, G : B. Anatomy and Physiology of Polygyra albolabris 

and Limax maximus and Embryology of Limax maximus. 82p. 28pl. 

Oct. 1901. 25c. 
Z7 (43) Kellogg, J. L. Clam and Scallop Industries of New York. 36?. 

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Z8 (51) Eckel, E. C. & Paulmier, F. C. Catalogue of Reptiles and Batrach- 

ians of New York. 64p. il. ipl. Ap. 1902. isc. 

Eckel, E. C. Serpents of Northeastern United States. 

Paulmier, F. C. Lizards, Tortoises and Batrachians of New York. 



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Z0 (60) Bean, T. H. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. 784?. Feb 

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Z10 (71) Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 

30p, 4P1- Sep. 1903- ioc. 

Letson, Elizabeth J. Catalogue of New York Mollusca. In press. 
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il. Nov. 1888. we. 

En2 (6) Cut -worms. 36p. il. Nov. 1888. ioc. 

En3 (13) San Jos Scale and Some Destructive Insects of New York 

State. S4p. 7pl. Ap. 1895. *5C- 
En4 (20) Felt, E. P. Elm-leaf Beetle in New York State. 46?. il. spl. 

June 1898. sc. 

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En5 (23) - - i4th Report of the State Entomologist 1898. isop. il. Qpl. 
Dec. 1898. 2oc. 

En6 (24) Memorial of the Life and Entomologic Work of J. A. Lint- 
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Supplement to 141!) report of the state entomologist. 

En7 (26) - - Collection, Preservation and Distribution of New York In- 
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Enll (37) - - Catalogue of Some of the More Important Injurious and 

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Enl2 (46) Scale Insects of Importance and a List of the Species in 

New York State. 94?. il. ispl. 'June 1901. 250. 
Enl3 (47) Needham, J. G. & Betten, Cornelius. Aquatic Insects in the 

Adirondacks. 234?. il. 36?!. Sep. 1901. 450. 
Enl4 (53) Felt, E. P. I7th Report of the State Entomologist 1901. 232?. 

il. 6pl. Aug. 1902. joe. 
Enl5 (57) - - Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. Spl. An-. 

1902. 150. 

This is a revision of En4 containing the more e-isential facts observed since th.it was prepared 

Enl6 (59) Grapevine Root Worm. 4Op. 6pl. Dec. 1902. i$c. 

Set En 19. 

Enl7 (64) i8th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. iiop. 6pl. 

May 1903. 2oc. 
Enl8 (68) Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 322p. 

52pl. Aug. 1903. Soc, cloth. 
Enl9 (72) Felt. !:. P. Grapevine Root Worm. s8p. I3pl. Nov. 1903. zoc. 

This is a revision of Eni6 containing the more essential facts observed since that was prepared. 

En20 (74) - - & Joutcl, L. II. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 88p. 

I4pl. June 1904. 25C. 
En21 (76) Felt, E. P. igth Report of the State Entomologist 1903. 150?. 4pl. 

1904. 150. 
En22 (79) - - Mosquitos or Culicidae of New York. 164?. il. S7pl. Oct. 

1904. 4oc. 

Needham, J. G. & others. May Flies and Midges of New York. In press. 
Felt, E. P. 20th Report of the State Entomologist 1904. In press. 
Botany. Bol (2) Peck, C: H. Contributions to the Botany of the State' of 

New York. 66p. 2pl. May 1887. Out of print. 

Bo2 (8) Boleti of the United States. o6p. Sep. 1889. [soc] 

Bo3 (25) Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. spl. Oct. 1899. 

Out of print. 



NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 

Bo4 (28) Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. 2oc. 

Bo5 (54) Report of the State Botanist 1901. 58?. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 400. 

Bo6 (67) - - Report of the State Botanist 1902. ig6p. 5pl. May 1903. 500. 
Bo7 (75) - - Report of the State Botanist 1903. 7op. 4pl. 1904. 400. 

Report of the State Botanist 1904. In press. 

Archeology. Arl (16) Beauchamp, W: M. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Im- 
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i04p. 35pl. Nov. 1897. 25c, 
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ArlO (87) - - Perch Lake Mounds. 84p. I2pl. Ap. 1905. 2oc. 

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Museums in United States and Canada. 236p. Ap. 1903. 300. 
Ms2 (66) Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications of the New York State Natural 

History Survey and New York State Museum 1837-1902. 4i8p. June 

1903- 75c, doth. 
Museum memoirs iSSg-date. Q. 

1 Beecher, C: E. & Clarke, J: M. Development of some Silurian Brachi- 

opoda. 96p. 8pl. Oct. 1889. Out of print. 

2 Hall, James & Clarke, J : M. Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 35op. il. 70pl. 

1898. $i, cloth. 

3 Clarke, J: M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co. 

N. Y. i28p. 9pl Oct. 1900. 8oc. 

4 Peck, C: H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. io6p. 25pl. Nov. 1900. 7$c. 

This includes revised descriptions and illustrations of fungi reported in the 4Qth, sist and ,2d 
reports of the slate botanist. 

5 Clarke, J: M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of 

New York State I96p. 2ipl. July 1903. $1.50, cloth. 

6 Naples Fauna in Western New York. 268p. 26pl. map. $2, cloth. 

7 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt I Graptolites of the 

Lower Beds. 350?. I7pl. Feb. 1905. $1.50, cloth. 
Felt, E. P. Insects Affecting Park and Woodland Trees. In press. 
Clarke, J: M. Early Devonic of Eastern New York. In preparation. 

Natural history o f New York. 30v. il. pi. maps. Q. Albany 1842-94. 

DIVISION i ZOOLOGY. De Kay, James E. Zoology of New York; or, The New 
York Fauna ; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals hitherto 
observed within the State of New York with brief notices of those occasion- 
ally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropriate illustrations. 
5y. il. pi. maps. sq. Q. Albany 1842-44. Out of print. 

Historical introduction to the series by Gov. W : H. Seward. 178?. 

v. I pti Mammalia. 13+146?. 33?!. 1842. 

300' copies with hand-colored plates. 

v. 2 pt2 Birds. 12+380?. 141?!. 1844. 

Colored plates. 

v. 3 pt3 Reptiles and Amphibia. 7+98p. pt4 Fishes. 15+415?. 1842. 

pt3-4 bound together. 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 

v. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. Reptiles and Amphibia 23pl. Fishes 79?!. 
1842. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

v. 5 pts Mollusca. 4+271?. 4Opl. pt6 Crustacea. 70p. 13?!. 1843-44. 

Hand-colored plates : pt/j-6 bound together. 

DIVISION 2 BOTANY. Torrey, John. Flora of the State of New York; com- 
prising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hith- 
erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and med- 
ical properties. 2v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1843. Out of print. 

v. I Flora of the State of New York. 12+484?. 72pl. 1843. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

v. 2 Flora of the State of New York. 572?. 8o.pl. 1843. 

300 copies with hand-colored p'aies. 

DIVISION 3 MINERALOGY. Beck, Lewis C. Mineralogy of New York; com- 
prising detailed descriptions of the minerals hitherto found in the State 
of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. pi. 
sq. Q. Albany 1842. Out of print. 

v. i pti Economical Mineralogy. pt2 Descriptive Mineralogy. 24+536?. 
1842. 

8 plates additional to those printed as part of the text. 

DIVISION 4 GEOLOGY. Mather, W : W. ; Emmons, Ebenezer ; Vanuxem, Lard- 
ner & Hall, James. Geology of New York. 4v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 
1842-43. Out of print. 

v. i pti Mather, W: W. First Geological District. 37+653?. 46?!. 1843. 

v. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. 10+437?. I7pl. 
1842. 

v. 3 ?t3 Vanuxem, Lardner. Third Geological District. 306?. 1842. 

v. 4 pt4 Hall, James. Fourth Geological District. 22+683?. IQ?1- map- 
1843. 

DIVISION 5 AGRICULTURE. Emmons, Ebenezer. Agriculture of New York; 
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution 
of the soils and .rocks and the natural waters of the different geological 
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri- 
cultural productions of the State. 5v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1846-54. Out 
of print. 

v. i Soils of the State, their Composition and Distribution. 11+371?. 2ipL 
1846. 

v. 2 Analysis of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8+343+46?. 42?!. 1849. 

With hand-colored p'ates. 

v. 3 Fruits, etc. 8+340?. 1851. 

v. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 95?!. 1851. 

Hand-colored. 

v.5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 8+272?. 50?!. 1854. 

With hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 6 PALEONTOLOGY. Hall, James. Palaeontology of New York. 8v. 

il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth. 
v. i Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New York System. 

23+338?. QQpl. 1847. Out of print. 
v. 2 Organic Remains of Lower Middle Division of the New York System. 

8+362?. 104?!. 1852, Out of print. 
v. 3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany 

Sandstone, pti, text. 12+532?. 1859. [&J-50] 

pt2, 143?!. 1861. [$2.50] 

v. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and 
Chemung Groups. 11+1+428?. 99?!. 1867. $2.50. 

v. 5 pti Lamellibranchiata i. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderberg, 
Hamilton and Chemung Groups. 18+268?. 45?1. 1884. $2.50. 

Lamellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Ham- 
ilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 62+293?. 51?!. 1885. $2.50. 

pt2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helder- 
berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2v. 1879. v. I, text 
15+492?. v. 2, I20?l. $2.50 for 2v. 



NENV YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 

r. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and Upper Helderberg and Hamil- 
ton Groups. 24+298?. 67pl. 1887. $2.50. t 

v, 7 Trilobites and other Crustacea of the Onskany, Upper Helderberg, 
Hamilton. Portage, Chemung and Catskill Groups. 64-l-236p. 46pl. i888j 
Cont. supplement to v. 5, pt2. Pteropoda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 
42p. i8pl. 1888. $2.50. 

v. 8pti Introduction to the Study of the Genera of the Paleozoic Brachi- 
opoda. 16+367?. 44?!. 1892. $2.50. 

pt2 Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16+394?. 84?!. 1804. $2.50. 

Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York and 
of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242p. O. 
1853- 

Handbooks i8o,3-date. 7J^xi2j4 cm. 

In quantities, i cent for each 16 pages or less. Single copies postpaid as below. 

H5 New York State Museum. 52?. il. 40. 

Outlines history and work of the museum with list of staff 1902. 

HIS Paleontology. 12 p. 2c. 

Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to 
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York. 

HIS Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. 
U4p. 8c. 

Itineraries of 3* trips covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially 
for the use of teachers and students desiring to acquaint themselves more intimately with the 
classic rocks of this State. 

H16 Entomology. i6p. 2c. 

H17 Economic Geology. 44?. 4C. 

HIS Insecticides and Fungicides. 2Op. 3c. 

H19 Classification of New York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. jr. 

Maps. Merrill F: J. H. Economic and Geologic Map of the State of New 
, York; issued as part of Museum bulletin 15 and the 48th Museum Report, 
v. i. 59x67 cm. 1804. Scale 14 miles to I inch. l^c. 

Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to I inch. In atlas 

form $3; mounted on rollers $5. Lower Hudson sheet 6oc. 

Th '.ower Hudson sheet, treologically colored, comprises Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, Put- 
nam, \Vestchester. New York, Rfchmond, Kings, Queens and Nassau counties, and parts of Sullivan, 
Ulster and Suffolk counties; also northeastern New Jersey and paj-t of western Connecticut. 

Map of New York showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds. 

1901. Scale 12 miles to I inch. /jc. 

Geologic maps on the United States Geological Survey topographic base; 
scale i in. = i m. Those marked with an asterisk have also been pub- 
lished separately. 

*Albany county. Mus. rep't 49, v. 2. 1898. y>c. 

Area around Lake Placid. Mus. bul. 21. 1898. 

Vicinity of Frankfort Hill [parts of Herkimer and Oneida counties]. Mus. 
rep't 51, v. i. 1899. 

Rockland county. State geol. rep't 18. 1899. 

Amsterdam quadrangle. Mus. bul. 34. 1900. 

*Parts of Albany and Rensselaer counties. Mus. bul. 42. 1901. loc. 

*Xiagara River. Mus. bul. 45. 1901. 250. 

Part of Clinton county. State geol. rep't 19. 1901. 

Oyster Bay and Hempstead quadrangles on Long Island. Mus. bul. 48. 1901. 

Portions of Clinton and Essex counties. Mus. bul. 52. 1902. 

Part of town of Northumberland, Saratoga co. State geol. rep't 21. 1903. 

Union Springs, Cayuga county and vicinity. Mus. bul. 69. 1903. 

*Olean quadrangle. Mus. bul. 69. 1903. we. 

*Becraft Mt with 2 sheets of sections. (Scale I in. = ]/ 3 m.) Mus. bul. 69. 
1903. 2oc. 

*Canandaigua-Naples quadrangles. Mus. bul. 63. 1904. 20c. 

*Little Falls quadrangle. Mus. bul. 77. 1905. 150. 

*Watkins-Elmira quadrangle. Mus. bul. 81. 1905. 20C. 

*Tully quadrangle. Mus. bal. 82. 1905 roc. 

*Salamanca quadrangle. Mus. bul. 80. 1905. loc. 



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